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The ability for cells to sense and adapt to different physical microenvironments plays a critical role in development, immune responses, and cancer metastasis. Here we identify a small subset of focal adhesions that terminate fibers in the actin cap, a highly ordered filamentous actin structure that is anchored to the top of the nucleus by the LINC(More)
BACKGROUND Cytokinesis in bacteria is mediated by a cytokinetic ring, termed the Z ring, which forms a scaffold for recruitment of other cell-division proteins. The Z ring is composed of FtsZ filaments, but their organization in the Z ring is poorly understood. In Escherichia coli, the Min system contributes to the spatial regulation of cytokinesis by(More)
The life cycle of bacterial cells consists of repeated elongation, septum formation, and division. Before septum formation, a division ring called the Z-ring, which is made of a filamentous tubulin analog, FtsZ, is seen at the mid cell. Together with several other proteins, FtsZ is essential for cell division. Visualization of strains with GFP-labeled FtsZ(More)
Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells use cytoskeletal proteins to regulate and modify cell shape. During cytokinesis or eukaryotic cell crawling, contractile forces are generated inside the cell to constrict the division site or to haul the rear of the cell forward, respectively. In many cases, these forces have been attributed to the activity of molecular(More)
Cells often migrate in vivo in an extracellular matrix that is intrinsically three-dimensional (3D) and the role of actin filament architecture in 3D cell migration is less well understood. Here we show that, while recently identified linkers of nucleoskeleton to cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes play a minimal role in conventional 2D migration, they play a(More)
In eukaryotic cells, small changes in cell volume can serve as important signals for cell proliferation, death, and migration. Volume and shape regulation also directly impacts the mechanics of cells and tissues. Here, we develop a mathematical model of cellular volume and pressure regulation, incorporating essential elements such as water permeation,(More)
To generate cellular diversity in developing organisms while simultaneously maintaining the developmental potential of the germline, germ cells must be able to preferentially endow germline daughter cells with a cytoplasmic portion containing specialized cell fate determinants not inherited by somatic cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans, germline inheritance(More)
Enveloped viruses such as HIV-1 enter their hosts by first establishing a contact region at the cell surface, which is stabilized by the formation of receptor-ligand complexes. We show that the favorable contact energy stemming from the formation of the receptor complexes in the interaction zone is sufficient to drive the engulfment of the virus by the(More)
Cytokinesis in bacteria is accomplished by a ring-shaped cell-division complex (the Z-ring). The primary component of the Z-ring is FtsZ, a filamentous tubulin homolog that serves as a scaffold for the recruitment of other cell-division-related proteins. FtsZ forms filaments and bundles. In the cell, it has been suggested that FtsZ filaments form the arcs(More)
Mesenchymal cell migration through a three-dimensional (3D) matrix typically involves major matrix remodeling. The direction of matrix deformation occurs locally in all three dimensions, which cannot be measured by current techniques. To probe the local, 3D, real-time deformation of a collagen matrix during tumor cell migration, we developed an assay(More)