Sean W. Kennedy

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An expert meeting was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and held in Stockholm on 15-18 June 1997. The objective of this meeting was to derive consensus toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for both human, fish, and wildlife risk(More)
Concentration-dependent effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) on cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction in primary hepatocyte cultures prepared from embryos of chickens (four breeds), pheasants, turkeys, ducks (three breeds), and herring gulls were determined. CYP1A activity was estimated by measuring ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity(More)
Dioxin-like compounds are toxic to most vertebrates, but significant differences in sensitivity exist among species. A recent study suggests that the amino acid residues corresponding to Ile324 and Ser380 in the chicken aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) are important determinants of differential biochemical responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(More)
A method for simultaneous measurement of the cytochrome P4501A-associated enzyme, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), and total protein concentration in liver microsomes is described. EROD assays were carried out in multiwell plates, and the fluorescent product (resorufin) and total proteins were quantified within the same wells with a fluorescence plate(More)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are highly toxic to most vertebrate animals, but there are dramatic differences in sensitivity among species and strains. Aquatic birds including the common tern (Sterna hirundo) are highly exposed to HAHs in the environment, but are up to 250-fold less sensitive(More)
Systematic consideration of scientific support is a critical element in developing and, ultimately, using adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for various regulatory applications. Though weight of evidence (WoE) analysis has been proposed as a basis for assessment of the maturity and level of confidence in an AOP, methodologies and tools are still being(More)
Rapid and sensitive methods for measuring ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction and total intracellular porphyrin accumulation in cultured chicken embryo hepatocytes exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are described. Cells were cultured in 48-well cell culture plates, and EROD assays were(More)
During 1989-1991, we assessed developmental abnormalities in embryos and hatchlings from eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina). Eggs were collected and artificially incubated from eight sites in Ontario, Canada and Akwesasne/New York, USA. In eggs from the same clutches we measured 20 organochlorine pesticides, 48(More)
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and(More)