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BACKGROUND There is an urgent need to determine whether oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a compound contaminating heparin supplies worldwide, is the cause of the severe anaphylactoid reactions that have occurred after intravenous heparin administration in the United States and Germany. METHODS Heparin procured from the Food and Drug(More)
Can users believe what their browsers tell them? Even sophisticated Web users decide whether or not to trust a server based on browser cues such as location bar information, SSL icons, SSL warnings, certificate information, and response time. In their seminal work on Web spoofing, Felten et al [10] showed how, in 1996, a malicious server could forge some of(More)
The use of credential directories in PKI and authorization systems such as Shibboleth introduces a new privacy risk: an insider at the directory can learn much about otherwise protected interactions by observing who makes queries, and what they ask for. Recent advances in Practical Private Information Retrieval provide promising countermeasures. In this(More)
The importance of intratumour genetic and functional heterogeneity is increasingly recognised as a driver of cancer progression and survival outcome. Understanding how tumour clonal heterogeneity impacts upon therapeutic outcome, however, is still an area of unmet clinical and scientific need. TRACERx (TRAcking non-small cell lung Cancer Evolution through(More)
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a key role in shaping the tumor microenvironment by presenting growth factors, cytokines, and other soluble factors that are critical for host cell recruitment and activation, as well as promoting tumor progression, metastasis, and survival. M402 is a rationally engineered, non-cytotoxic heparan sulfate (HS)(More)
CD25 is expressed at high levels on regulatory T (Treg) cells and was initially proposed as a target for cancer immunotherapy. However, anti-CD25 antibodies have displayed limited activity against established tumors. We demonstrated that CD25 expression is largely restricted to tumor-infiltrating Treg cells in mice and humans. While existing anti-CD25(More)
One often hears the claim that smart cards are the solution to a number of security problems, including those arising in point-of-sale systems. In this paper, we c haracterize the minimal properties necessary for the secure smart card point-of-sale transactions. Many proposed systems fail to provide these properties: problems arise from failures to provide(More)
Activation of CCR8 by its ligand CCL1 may play an important role in diseases such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. The study of small molecule CCR8 antagonists will help establish the validation of these hypotheses. We report the design, synthesis, and progress toward optimization of potent small molecule CCR8 antagonists identified from a(More)
The Web is currently the pre-eminent medium for electronic service delivery to remote users. As a consequence, authentication of servers is more important than ever. Even sophisticated users base their decision whether or not to trust a site on browser cues—such as location bar information, SSL icons, SSL warnings, certificate information, response time,(More)