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OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations between Parkinson's disease and other degenerative parkinsonian syndromes and environmental factors in five European countries. METHODS A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with Parkinson's disease) and 1989 controls in Scotland, Italy, Sweden, Romania and Malta was carried out. Cases(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate associations of Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonian syndromes with polymorphic genes that influence metabolism of either foreign chemical substances or dopamine and to seek evidence of gene-environment interaction effects that modify risk. METHODS A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with PD) and(More)
The present birth cohort study investigated whether or not childhood wheeze and asthma are associated with parental exposure to occupational sensitisers that cause asthma. Parental occupation, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), was related to wheeze, asthma, ventilatory function, airway responsiveness and atopic sensitisation(More)
AIMS To measure particulate matter (PM) exposure of people involved in domestic work (i.e. housework by a resident, not paid work) in urban and rural Nepal, with exposure to biomass smoke in the rural areas, and to examine the performance of photometric devices in collecting these data. This paper details the results of these measurements and derives(More)
OBJECTIVE To study a novel intervention (REFRESH) aimed at reducing children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in their homes. DESIGN A randomised feasibility study. SETTING Aberdeen City and Aberdeenshire. PARTICIPANTS A total of 59 smoking mothers with at least one child younger than 6 years. Participation took place between July 2010 and March(More)
INTRODUCTION The health effects on young children of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) are well described. Recent work suggests that over one quarter of school-aged children in Scotland are regularly exposed to SHS in the home. The study was designed to describe SHS exposure in preschool children whose mothers smoked and identify factors that influence(More)
BACKGROUND There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS). The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. METHOD This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years)(More)
BACKGROUND Over half the world is exposed daily to the smoke from combustion of solid fuels. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main contributors to the global burden of disease and can be caused by biomass smoke exposure. However, studies of biomass exposure and COPD show a wide range of effect sizes. The aim of this systematic(More)
BACKGROUND Air pollution from biomass fuels in Africa is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity both in adults and children. The work describes the nature and quantity of smoke exposure from biomass fuel in Malawian homes. METHODS Markers of indoor air quality were measured in 62 homes (31 rural and 31 urban) over a typical 24 h period. Four(More)
OBJECTIVES A system that combines the ease of use of a job-exposure matrix while taking into account job-specific data is needed. This study aimed to produce a detailed method for combining interview data with expert assessments for a large population-based case-control study of Parkinson's disease. METHOD An interview-administered core questionnaire with(More)