Sean S. Liour

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Radial glial cells play important roles in neural development. They provide support and guidance for neuronal migration and give rise to neurons and glia. In vitro, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes can be generated from neural and embryonic stem cells, but the generation of radial glial cells from these stem cells has not yet been reported. Since(More)
Previously, we showed that radial glia-like (RG) cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells after retinoic acid induction (Liour and Yu, 2003: Glia 42:109-117). In the present study, we demonstrate that the production of RG cells from ES cells is independent of the neural differentiation protocol used. These ES cell-derived RG (ES-RG) cells are(More)
Gangliosides are constituents of the cell membrane and are known to have important functions in neuronal differentiation. We employed an embryonal carcinoma stem cell line P19 as an in vitro model to investigate the expression of gangliosides during neuronal development. After treatment with retinoic acid, these cells differentiate synchronously into(More)
Alternative splicing produces functionally distinct proteins participating in cellular processes including differentiation and development. CoAA is a coactivator that regulates transcription-coupled splicing and its own pre-mRNA transcript is alternatively spliced. We show here that the CoAA gene is embryonically expressed and alternatively spliced in(More)
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are known to play important roles in cellular growth and differentiation in the nervous system. The change in expression of gangliosides is correlated with crucial developmental events and is evolutionarily conserved among many vertebrate species. The emergence of neural progenitors represents a crucial step in neural development,(More)
Severe neurological deficits and mental retardation are frequently associated with disrupted ganglioside metabolism in a variety of gangliosidoses and lysosomal storage disorders. Accumulation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals affected with several types of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) also correlates with(More)
The expression of gangliosides is developmentally regulated in the central nervous system. The expression of GM1 in the neural progenitor cells of the telencephalonic ventricular zone (VZ) has been reported in several studies. However, information on the spatial and temporal regulation of GM1 expression in the VZ is still lacking. In this study, we(More)
Gangliosides have been implicated in having important roles in neural development. It has been shown that disruption of ganglioside biosynthesis inhibits neurite outgrowth. However, many contradictory results have been reported. The inconsistency of these reports may result from the differential use of neuronal cell lines and inhibitors for ganglioside(More)
It has been shown previously that the migration of granule neurons in neonatal cerebellum can be inhibited by a monoclonal antibody (Mab) JONES. Because the inhibition is presumed to be mediated through binding of the JONES antibody to 9-O-acetyl GD3, we used GD3-synthase knockout (GD3S-/-) mice that do not express 9-O-acetyl GD3 and also have no detectable(More)
Bioartificial kidneys (BAKs) combine a conventional hemofilter in series with a bioreactor unit containing renal epithelial cells. The epithelial cells derived from the renal tubule should provide transport, metabolic, endocrinologic and immunomodulatory functions. Currently, primary human renal proximal tubule cells are most relevant for clinical(More)