Sean S. Liour

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Gangliosides are constituents of the cell membrane and are known to have important functions in neuronal differentiation. We employed an embryonal carcinoma stem cell line P19 as an in vitro model to investigate the expression of gangliosides during neuronal development. After treatment with retinoic acid, these cells differentiate synchronously into(More)
Previously, we showed that radial glia-like (RG) cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells after retinoic acid induction (Liour and Yu, 2003: Glia 42:109-117). In the present study, we demonstrate that the production of RG cells from ES cells is independent of the neural differentiation protocol used. These ES cell-derived RG (ES-RG) cells are(More)
Several animal models have been developed for the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs), a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by lysosomal hydrolase deficiencies that disrupt the catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAG). Among the MPS, the MPS-III (Sanfilippo) syndromes lacked an animal counterpart until recently. In this investigation of caprine MPS-IIID,(More)
The electrophilic agent, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), has been widely used as an intracellular glutathione-depleting agent. However, its possible effect on the functional integrity of cell membrane has largely been neglected. Incubation of human erythrocytes (RBC) with various concentrations of CDNB (0.5 to 5.0 mM) in potassium-free, phosphate(More)
Radial glial cells play important roles in neural development. They provide support and guidance for neuronal migration and give rise to neurons and glia. In vitro, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes can be generated from neural and embryonic stem cells, but the generation of radial glial cells from these stem cells has not yet been reported. Since(More)
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are known to play important roles in cellular growth and differentiation in the nervous system. The change in expression of gangliosides is correlated with crucial developmental events and is evolutionarily conserved among many vertebrate species. The emergence of neural progenitors represents a crucial step in neural development,(More)
During brain development, radial glial (RG) cells and the different progenitor subtypes are characterized by their bipolar morphology that includes an ovoid cell body and one or two radial processes that span across the developing cerebral wall. Different cells transport the reduced form of vitamin C, ascorbic acid (AA), using sodium-dependent ascorbic acid(More)
The expression of gangliosides is developmentally regulated in the central nervous system. The expression of GM1 in the neural progenitor cells of the telencephalonic ventricular zone (VZ) has been reported in several studies. However, information on the spatial and temporal regulation of GM1 expression in the VZ is still lacking. In this study, we(More)
Gangliosides have been implicated in having important roles in neural development. It has been shown that disruption of ganglioside biosynthesis inhibits neurite outgrowth. However, many contradictory results have been reported. The inconsistency of these reports may result from the differential use of neuronal cell lines and inhibitors for ganglioside(More)
Cell differentiation is frequently accompanied by alterations in the composition of gangliosides in the plasma membrane resulting from a regulation of the enzyme activities involved. The regulation of CMP-NeuAc:GM1 alpha2-3-sialyltransferase (ST-IV) and UDP-GalNAc:GM3 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (Gal-NAc-T) by the degree of enzyme phosphorylation was(More)