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Both income inequality and income segregation in the United States grew substantially from 1970 to 2000. Using data from the 100 largest metropolitan areas, we investigate whether and how income inequality affects patterns of income segregation along three dimensions—the spatial segregation of poverty and affluence; race-specific patterns of income(More)
This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs(More)
A large literature finds substantial variation in teachers' effects on student achievement. Moreover, this research finds that little of this variation in effectiveness can be explained by traditional measures of quality, such as years of teaching experience. There remains, however, a gap in our understanding of how the choice of test measure—and teachers'(More)
We thank the many dedicated principals, teachers and staff of the school districts that participated in this project as well as Wozny provided expert research assistance. Funding for this project was generously provided by the Education Research Section at Princeton University. Any views expressed in this paper do not necessarily reflect those of the(More)
In this chapter I examine whether and how the relationship between family socioeconomic characteristics and academic achievement has changed during the last fifty years. In particular, I investigate the extent to which the rising income inequality of the last four decades has been paralleled by a similar increase in the income achievement gradient. As the(More)
Least squares regression estimates of causal effects are conditional variance weighted estimates of individual-level causal effects. In this paper, we extract from the literature on counterfac-tual causality a simple nine-step routine to determine whether or not the implicit weighting of regression has generated a misleading estimate of the average causal(More)
In this paper we investigate whether the school desegregation produced by court-ordered desegregation plans persists when school districts are released from court oversight. Over 200 medium-sized and large districts were released from desegregation court orders from 1991 to 2009. We find that racial school segregation in these districts increased gradually(More)