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In this chapter I examine whether and how the relationship between family socioeconomic characteristics and academic achievement has changed during the last fifty years. In particular, I investigate the extent to which the rising income inequality of the last four decades has been paralleled by a similar increase in the income achievement gradient. As the(More)
This article investigates how the growth in income inequality from 1970 to 2000 affected patterns of income segregation along three dimensions: the spatial segregation of poverty and affluence, race-specific patterns of income segregation, and the geographic scale of income segregation. The evidence reveals a robust relationship between income inequality(More)
In this paper I propose a class of measures of rank-order segregation, each of which may be used to measure segregation by a continuous (but not necessarily interval-scaled) variable, such as income. These rank-order segregation indices have several appealing features that remedy flaws in existing measures of income segregation. First, the measures are(More)
This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs(More)
A large literature finds substantial variation in teachers' effects on student achievement. Moreover, this research finds that little of this variation in effectiveness can be explained by traditional measures of quality, such as years of teaching experience. There remains, however, a gap in our understanding of how the choice of test measure—and teachers'(More)
This paper examines how a large conditional grants program influenced school desegregation in the American South. Exploiting newly collected archival data and quasi-experimental variation in potential per-pupil federal grants, we show that school districts with more at risk in 1966 were more likely to desegregate just enough to receive their funds. Although(More)
In this paper we investigate whether the school desegregation produced by court-ordered desegregation plans persists when school districts are released from court oversight. Over 200 medium-sized and large districts were released from desegregation court orders from 1991 to 2009. We find that racial school segregation in these districts increased gradually(More)