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Over the past 60 years, the transfusion medicine community has attained significant knowledge regarding transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) through the bedside to bench and back to the bedside model. First, at the bedside, TRALI causes hypoxia and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, typically within 6 hours of transfusion. Second, bedside studies(More)
The expression of ABO(H) blood group antigens causes deletion of cells that generate self-specific antibodies to these antigens but this deletion limits adaptive immunity toward pathogens bearing cognate blood group antigens. To explore potential defense mechanisms against such pathogens, given these limitations in adaptive immunity, we screened for innate(More)
Human galectins have distinct and overlapping biological roles in immunological homeostasis. However, the underlying differences among galectins in glycan binding specificity regulating these functions are unclear. Galectin-8 (Gal-8), a tandem repeat galectin, has two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) that may cross-link cell surface counter(More)
Galectin-1 is a member of the galectin family of glycan-binding proteins and occurs as an approximately 29.5-kDa noncovalent homodimer (dGal-1) that is widely expressed in many tissues. Here, we report that human recombinant dGal-1 bound preferentially and with high affinity (apparent K(d) approximately 2-4 microM) to immobilized extended glycans containing(More)
The desmosomal cadherins, desmogleins, and desmocollins mediate strong intercellular adhesion. Human intestinal epithelial cells express the desmoglein-2 isoform. A proteomic screen for Dsg2-associated proteins in intestinal epithelial cells identified a lectin referred to as galectin-3 (Gal3). Gal3 bound to N-linked β-galactosides in Dsg2 extracellular(More)
Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells are a well characterized epithelial cell line used to study mechanisms of polarized delivery. As glycans on apically expressed proteins have been identified as targeting signals, and crosslinking by the abundant galectin-3 has been implicated in the mechanism of glycan-dependent sorting, we wanted to identify other(More)
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) regulates leukocyte turnover by inducing the cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), a ligand that targets cells for phagocytic removal, in the absence of apoptosis. Gal-1 monomer-dimer equilibrium appears to modulate Gal-1-induced PS exposure, although the mechanism underlying this regulation remains unclear. Here we show that(More)
Human galectins have functionally divergent roles, although most of the members of the galectin family bind weakly to the simple disaccharide lactose (Galbeta1-4Glc). To assess the specificity of galectin-glycan interactions in more detail, we explored the binding of several important galectins (Gal-1, Gal-2, and Gal-3) using a dose-response approach toward(More)
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) exhibit profound but unique immunomodulatory activities in animals but their molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Early studies suggested that Gal-1 inhibits leukocyte function by inducing apoptotic cell death and removal, but recent studies show that some galectins induce exposure of the common death(More)
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) are widely expressed galectins with immunoregulatory functions in animals. To explore their glycan specificity, we developed microarrays of naturally occurring glycans using a bifunctional fluorescent linker, 2-amino-N-(2-aminoethyl)-benzamide (AEAB), directly conjugated through its arylamine group by reductive(More)