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BACKGROUND From middle childhood onwards, substantial evidence points to phenotypic differentiation between anxiety diagnostic categories such as generalised anxiety, separation anxiety, specific phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. However, little is known about the genetics of these categories and especially about the phenotypic and genetic(More)
BACKGROUND Comorbidity amongst anxiety disorders is very common in children as in adults and leads to considerable distress and impairment, yet is poorly understood. Multivariate genetic analyses can shed light on the origins of this comorbidity by revealing whether genetic or environmental risks for one disorder also influence another. We examined the(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of individual trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and young people. METHOD Following a 4-week symptom-monitoring baseline period, 24 children and young people (8-18 years old) who met full DSM-IV PTSD diagnostic criteria after experiencing(More)
There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic review of(More)
BACKGROUND Previous reports of genetic influences on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms have suggested moderate heritability. Family history studies of co-morbidity have found familial aggregation with tics, especially for early-onset OCD, and familial aggregation with anxiety disorders. METHOD Heritability of OCD and familial aggregation of(More)
The present study was undertaken to estimate the effect of exposure plus response-prevention (E/RP), delivered alone intensively over 5-weeks and without concomitant pharmacotherapy, for children and adolescents with OCD. Twenty children and adolescents with OCD, not receiving medication for this condition, were randomized to E/RP or a wait-list condition.(More)
BACKGROUND Reviews and practice guidelines for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) recommend cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) as the psychological treatment of choice, but note that it has not been sufficiently evaluated for children and adolescents and that more randomized controlled trials are needed. The aim of this trial was to evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the association between normative repetitive routines of childhood and paediatric obsessive compulsive symptom syndrome (OCSS) and the extent to which it is genetically mediated. METHODS In a two-phase design a community sample of 4,662 6-year-old twin-pairs were sampled and 854 pairs were assessed in the second phase for(More)
The psychometric properties of the child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) were examined in 2 samples. Sample 1 (N = 185, ages 6-17 years) consisted of children recruited from hospitals after accidental injury, assault, and road traffic trauma, and assessed 6 months posttrauma. Sample 2 (N = 68, ages 6-17 years) comprised treatment-seeking children who had(More)
BACKGROUND Prevalence of childhood anxiety disorders at specific ages and genetic etiological influences on anxiety disorders in young children have been little studied. The present study reports prevalence estimates in a community sample of 6-year-old twins, and patterns of genetic and environmental influences on these early-onset anxiety disorders. (More)