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Despite its immense size, logistical and methodological constraints have largely limited microbiological investigations of the subseafloor basement biosphere. In this study, a unique sampling system was used to collect fluids from the subseafloor basaltic crust via a Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatory at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program(More)
The basaltic ocean crust is the largest aquifer system on Earth, yet the rates of biological activity in this environment are unknown. Low-temperature (<100°C) fluid samples were investigated from two borehole observatories in the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR) flank, representing a range of upper oceanic basement thermal and geochemical properties. Microbial(More)
Although little is known regarding microbial life within our planet's rock-hosted deep subseafloor biosphere, boreholes drilled through deep ocean sediment and into the underlying basaltic crust provide invaluable windows of access that have been used previously to document the presence of microorganisms within fluids percolating through the deep ocean(More)
To expand investigations into the phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms inhabiting the subseafloor biosphere, basalt-hosted crustal fluids were sampled from Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits (CORKs) affixed to Holes 1025C and 1026B along the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) flank using a clean fluid pumping system. These boreholes penetrate the crustal(More)
The global deep subsurface biosphere is one of the largest reservoirs for microbial life on our planet. This study takes advantage of new sampling technologies and couples them with improvements to DNA sequencing and associated informatics tools to reconstruct the genomes of uncultivated Bacteria and Archaea from fluids collected deep within the Juan de(More)
The terrestrial deep subsurface is a huge repository of microbial biomass, but in relation to its size and physical heterogeneity, few sites have been investigated in detail. Here, we applied a culture-independent metagenomic approach to characterize the microbial community composition in deep (1500 meters below surface) terrestrial fluids. Samples were(More)
Although fluids within the upper oceanic basaltic crust harbor a substantial fraction of the total prokaryotic cells on Earth, the energy needs of this microbial population are unknown. In this study, a nanocalorimeter (sensitivity down to 1.2 nW ml(-1)) was used to measure the enthalpy of microbially catalyzed reactions as a function of temperature in(More)
Field expeditions have long played a critical role in advancing our understanding of the natural world. From the voyage of the Beagle to the HMS Challenger Expedition and the Apollo Moon landings, researchers have visited remote locations to collect samples and in situ data before returning to the laboratory for further analyses. Although this approach has(More)
Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement(More)
We present two standards developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting bacterial and archaeal genome sequences. Both are extensions of the Minimum Information about Any (x) Sequence (MIxS). The standards are the Minimum Information about a Single Amplified Genome (MISAG) and the Minimum Information about a Metagenome-Assembled Genome(More)