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The basaltic ocean crust is the largest aquifer system on Earth, yet the rates of biological activity in this environment are unknown. Low-temperature (<100°C) fluid samples were investigated from two borehole observatories in the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR) flank, representing a range of upper oceanic basement thermal and geochemical properties. Microbial(More)
To expand investigations into the phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms inhabiting the subseafloor biosphere, basalt-hosted crustal fluids were sampled from Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits (CORKs) affixed to Holes 1025C and 1026B along the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) flank using a clean fluid pumping system. These boreholes penetrate the crustal(More)
Although little is known regarding microbial life within our planet's rock-hosted deep subseafloor biosphere, boreholes drilled through deep ocean sediment and into the underlying basaltic crust provide invaluable windows of access that have been used previously to document the presence of microorganisms within fluids percolating through the deep ocean(More)
The global deep subsurface biosphere is one of the largest reservoirs for microbial life on our planet. This study takes advantage of new sampling technologies and couples them with improvements to DNA sequencing and associated informatics tools to reconstruct the genomes of uncultivated Bacteria and Archaea from fluids collected deep within the Juan de(More)
Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement(More)
It is generally accepted that diverse, poorly characterized microorganisms reside deep within Earth's crust. One such lineage of deep subsurface-dwelling bacteria is an uncultivated member of the Firmicutes phylum that can dominate molecular surveys from both marine and continental rock fracture fluids, sometimes forming the sole member of a single-species(More)
Although fluids within the upper oceanic basaltic crust harbor a substantial fraction of the total prokaryotic cells on Earth, the energy needs of this microbial population are unknown. In this study, a nanocalorimeter (sensitivity down to 1.2 nW ml(-1)) was used to measure the enthalpy of microbially catalyzed reactions as a function of temperature in(More)
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