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Human skin is a large, heterogeneous organ that protects the body from pathogens while sustaining microorganisms that influence human health and disease. Our analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences obtained from 20 distinct skin sites of healthy humans revealed that physiologically comparable sites harbor similar bacterial communities. The complexity(More)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) has long been associated with Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization or infection and is typically managed with regimens that include antimicrobial therapies. However, the role of microbial communities in the pathogenesis of AD is incompletely characterized. To assess the relationship between skin microbiota and disease progression,(More)
Characterization of the topographical and temporal diversity of the microbial collective (microbiome) hosted by healthy human skin established a reference for studying disease-causing microbiomes. Physiologic changes occur in the skin as humans mature from infancy to adulthood. Thus, characterizations of adult microbiomes might have limitations when(More)
The varied topography of human skin offers a unique opportunity to study how the body's microenvironments influence the functional and taxonomic composition of microbial communities. Phylogenetic marker gene-based studies have identified many bacteria and fungi that colonize distinct skin niches. Here metagenomic analyses of diverse body sites in healthy(More)
Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the microbial landscape of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases, including athlete's foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms and provides a home for diverse commensal microbiota. Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel(More)
The detection of organic molecules is important in many areas, including medicine, environmental monitoring and defence. Stochastic sensing is an approach that relies on the observation of individual binding events between analyte molecules and a single receptor. Engineered transmembrane protein pores are promising sensor elements for stochastic detection,(More)
OmpG, a porin from E. coli, has been examined in planar lipid bilayers and in detergent solution. First, bilayer recordings were used to reinforce the evidence that the functional form of OmpG is a monomer. Both pH-dependent gating and blockade by covalent modification add support to this proposal. The findings contrast with the properties of the classical(More)
Extended retro (reversed) peptide sequences have not previously been accommodated within functional proteins. Here, we show that the entire transmembrane portion of the beta-barrel of the pore-forming protein alpha-hemolysin can be formed by retrosequences comprising a total of 175 amino acid residues, 25 contributed by the central sequence of each subunit(More)
Intestinal commensal bacteria induce protective and regulatory responses that maintain host-microbial mutualism. However, the contribution of tissue-resident commensals to immunity and inflammation at other barrier sites has not been addressed. We found that in mice, the skin microbiota have an autonomous role in controlling the local inflammatory milieu(More)
A variety of microbial communities and their genes (the microbiome) exist throughout the human body, with fundamental roles in human health and disease. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project Consortium has established a population-scale framework to develop metagenomic protocols, resulting in a broad range of(More)