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The major active ingredient of marijuana, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), has been used as a psychoactive agent for thousands of years. Marijuana, and delta 9-THC, also exert a wide range of other effects including analgesia, anti-inflammation, immunosuppression, anticonvulsion, alleviation of intraocular pressure in glaucoma, and attenuation of(More)
A genetic interaction network containing approximately 1000 genes and approximately 4000 interactions was mapped by crossing mutations in 132 different query genes into a set of approximately 4700 viable gene yeast deletion mutants and scoring the double mutant progeny for fitness defects. Network connectivity was predictive of function because interactions(More)
There has been considerable recent interest in the possibility that the plasma membrane contains lipid "rafts," microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. It has been suggested that such rafts could play an important role in many cellular processes including signal transduction, membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and pathogen(More)
Small G proteins play a central role in the organization of the secretory and endocytic pathways. The majority of such small G proteins are members of the Rab family, which are anchored to the bilayer by C-terminal prenyl groups. However, the recruitment of some effectors, including vesicle coat proteins, is mediated by a second class of small G proteins(More)
BACKGROUND Phosphoinositides are required for the recruitment of many proteins to both the plasma membrane and the endosome; however, their role in protein targeting to other organelles is less clear. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and its relatives have been shown to bind to the Golgi apparatus in yeast and(More)
The ARLs are a diverse family of GTPases that are related to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), but whose function is poorly understood. There are at least ten ARLs in humans, two of which have homologs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ARL1/Arl1p and ARFRP1/Arl3p). The function of ARFRP1 is unknown, but mammalian ARL1 has recently been found to interact(More)
Despite the recent progress in the field of membrane traffic, the question of how the specificity of membrane fusion is achieved has yet to be resolved. It has become apparent that the SNARE proteins, although central to the process of fusion, are often not the first point of contact between a vesicle and its target. Instead, a poorly understood tethering(More)
Golgins are large coiled-coil proteins that play a role in Golgi structure and vesicle traffic. The Arf-like GTPase Arl1 regulates the translocation of GRIP domain-containing golgins to Golgi membranes. We report here the 1.7 A resolution structure of human Arl1-GTP in a complex with the GRIP domain of golgin-245. The structure reveals that the GRIP domain(More)
Membrane-bound organelles are a defining feature of eukaryotic cells, and play a central role in most of their fundamental processes. The Rab G proteins are the single largest family of proteins that participate in the traffic between organelles, with 66 Rabs encoded in the human genome. Rabs direct the organelle-specific recruitment of vesicle tethering(More)