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A unified statistical approach for determining significant signals in images of cerebral activation
A unified statistical theory for assessing the significance of apparent signal observed in noisy difference images is presented and an estimate of the P‐value for local maxima of Gaussian, t, χ2 and F fields over search regions of any shape or size in any number of dimensions is estimated.
A Three-Dimensional Statistical Analysis for CBF Activation Studies in Human Brain
A simple method for determining an approximate p value for the global maximum based on the theory of Gaussian random fields is described, which focuses on the Euler characteristic of the set of voxels with a value larger than a given threshold.
Investigation of BOLD signal dependence on cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption: The deoxyhemoglobin dilution model
A quantitative model, based on flow‐dependent dilution of metabolically generated deoxyhemoglobin, was validated by measuring BOLD signals and relative CBF simultaneously in the primary visual cortex of human subjects during graded hypercapnia at different levels of visual stimulation and yielded MRI‐based CMRO2 measurements that were in agreement with PET results for equivalent stimuli.
A general mechanism for perceptual decision-making in the human brain
Functional magnetic resonance imaging and a categorization task show that even for complex object categories, the comparison of the outputs of different pools of selectively tuned neurons could be a general mechanism by which the human brain computes perceptual decisions.
Linear coupling between cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in activated human cortex.
Estimation of aerobic ATP yields from the observed CMR(O(2)) increases and comparison with the maximum possible anaerobic ATP contribution indicate that elevated energy demands during brain activation are met largely through oxidative metabolism.
The neural systems that mediate human perceptual decision making
Findings from human neuroimaging studies in conjunction with data analysis methods that can directly link decisions and signals in the human brain on a trial-by-trial basis are reviewed to lead to a new view about the neural basis of human perceptual decision-making processes.
Multiple representations of pain in human cerebral cortex.
It has now been demonstrated that painful heat causes significant activation of the contralateral anterior cingulate, secondary somatosensory, and primary somatoensory cortices.
The Retinotopy of Visual Spatial Attention
Involvement of human left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in perceptual decision making is independent of response modality.
Functional MRI data suggest that the involvement of left posterior DLPFC in perceptual decision making transcends both task and response specificity, thereby enabling a flexible link among sensory evidence, decision, and action.
Searching scale space for activation in PET images
This paper provides a unified P value for the 4‐D local maxima that is accurate for searches over regions of any shape or size and applies equally well to any Gaussian statistical field, such as those resulting from fMRI.