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We present a unified statistical theory for assessing the significance of apparent signal observed in noisy difference images. The results are usable in a wide range of applications, including fMRI, but are discussed with particular reference to PET images which represent changes in cerebral blood flow elicited by a specific cognitive or sensorimotor task.(More)
Many studies of brain function with positron emission tomography (PET) involve the interpretation of a subtracted PET image, usually the difference between two images under baseline and stimulation conditions. The purpose of these studies is to see which areas of the brain are activated by the stimulation condition. In many cognitive studies, the activation(More)
The relationship between blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI signals, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen consumption (CMR(O2)) in the physiological steady state was investigated. A quantitative model, based on flow-dependent dilution of metabolically generated deoxyhemoglobin, was validated by measuring BOLD signals and relative CBF(More)
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, within a specific cortical unit, fractional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMR(O(2))) are coupled through an invariant relationship during physiological stimulation. This aim was achieved by simultaneously measuring relative changes in these(More)
Findings from single-cell recording studies suggest that a comparison of the outputs of different pools of selectively tuned lower-level sensory neurons may be a general mechanism by which higher-level brain regions compute perceptual decisions. For example, when monkeys must decide whether a noisy field of dots is moving upward or downward, a decision can(More)
Perceptual decision making is the act of choosing one option or course of action from a set of alternatives on the basis of available sensory evidence. Thus, when we make such decisions, sensory information must be interpreted and translated into behaviour. Neurophysiological work in monkeys performing sensory discriminations, combined with computational(More)
We used high-field (3T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to label cortical activity due to visual spatial attention, relative to flattened cortical maps of the retinotopy and visual areas from the same human subjects. In the main task, the visual stimulus remained constant, but covert visual spatial attention was varied in both location and(More)
PET images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in an activation study are usually smoothed to a resolution much poorer than the intrinsic resolution of the PET camera. This is done to reduce noise and to overcome problems caused by neuroanatomic variability among different subjects undertaking the same experimental task. In many studies the choice of this(More)
The representation of pain in the cerebral cortex is less well understood than that of any other sensory system. However, with the use of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography in humans, it has now been demonstrated that painful heat causes significant activation of the contralateral anterior cingulate, secondary somatosensory, and(More)
Perceptual decision making typically entails the processing of sensory signals, the formation of a decision, and the planning and execution of a motor response. Although recent studies in monkeys and humans have revealed possible neural mechanisms for perceptual decision making, much less is known about how the decision is subsequently transformed into a(More)