Sean M. Riordan

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The form(s) of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) associated with the pathology characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. In particular, the neurotoxicity of intraneuronal Aβ accumulation is an issue of considerable controversy; even the existence of Aβ deposits within neurons has recently been challenged by Winton and co-workers. These authors(More)
BACE1 is the β-secretase enzyme that initiates production of the β-amyloid peptide involved in Alzheimer disease. However, little is known about the functions of BACE1. BACE1-deficient mice exhibit mild but complex neurological phenotypes suggesting therapeutic BACE1 inhibition may not be completely free of mechanism-based side effects. Recently, we have(More)
Epidemiological and genetic studies indicate that ethnic/genetic background plays an important role in susceptibility to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). POAG is more prevalent among the African-descent population compared to the Caucasian population. Damage in POAG occurs at the level of the optic nerve head (ONH) and is mediated by astrocytes. Here we(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytes, a key cellular component of glaucomatous neuropathy, exhibit differential gene expression in primary cultures of astrocytes from normal African American (AA) donors compared to astrocytes from normal Caucasian American (CA) donors. METHODS We used oligonucleotide Affymetrix microarray (HG(More)
Presynaptic terminal cAMP elevation plays a central role in plasticity at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapse of the hippocampus. Prior studies have identified protein kinase A as a downstream effector of cAMP that contributes to mossy fiber LTP (MF-LTP), but the potential contribution of Epac2, another cAMP effector expressed in the MF synapse, has not been(More)
BACE1 is one of the two enzymes that cleave amyloid precursor protein to generate Alzheimer's disease (AD) beta amyloid peptides. It is widely believed that BACE1 initiates APP processing in endosomes, and in the brain this cleavage is known to occur during axonal transport of APP. In addition, BACE1 accumulates in dystrophic neurites surrounding brain(More)
The Clustered Regions of Interspersed Palindromic Repeats-Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9), a viral defense system found in bacteria and archaea, has emerged as a tour de force genome editing tool. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is much easier to customize and optimize because the site selection for DNA cleavage is guided by a short sequence of RNA rather than an engineered(More)
Aging is the predominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and contributes to a considerably more severe outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, is a caloric restriction mimetic with potential anti-aging properties which has emerged as a beneficial nutraceutical for patients with(More)
Genetic-based susceptibility to bilirubin neurotoxicity and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus) is still poorly understood. Neonatal jaundice affects 60-80% of newborns, and considerable effort goes into preventing this relatively benign condition from escalating into the development of kernicterus making the incidence of this potentially(More)
Proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by b-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and g-secretase generates Ab peptides. APP is constitutively trafficked through the secretory and endocytic pathways in cultured cells and neurons. The identities of cellular organelles and sorting pathways involved in amyloidogenic processing of APP have been(More)