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The authors present a structural analysis of three spatial diagrams-matrices, networks, and hierarchies-that specifies 10 properties on which these diagrammatic representations are hypothesized to differ: global structure, building block, number of sets, item/link constraints, item distinguishability, link type, absence of a relation, linking relations,(More)
Spatial diagram representations such as hierarchies, matrices, and networks are important tools for thinking. Our data suggest that college students possess abstract schemas for these representations that include at least rudimentary information about their applicability conditions. In Experiment 1, subjects were better able to select the appropriate(More)
This article reports on analyses examining contextual influences on parenting with an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of parents (predominantly mothers) raising 387 children (49% ethnic minority; 51% male) in high-risk communities. Parents and children were followed longitudinally from first through tenth grades. Contextual influences included(More)
In order for a diagram to be useful for solving a problem, it must be constructed so that its perceptual features facilitate inferences relevant to that problem. In Experiment 1, we established the construction conventions, which relate to how information is assigned to different parts of the diagram, for three spatial representations-networks, hierarchies,(More)
2006a), approximately six million U.S. students with disabilities (Ages 6–21) were being served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA). Approximately 54% had their primary placement (80% of the time or more) in general education classes (U.S. Department of Education , 2006b). Although this represented a 21% increase(More)
Parents raising youth in high-risk communities at times rely on active, involved monitoring strategies in order to increase both knowledge about youth activities and the likelihood that adolescents will abstain from problem behavior. Key monitoring literature suggests that some of these active monitoring strategies predict increases in adolescent problem(More)
An online survey was distributed via snowball sampling and resulted in responses from 61 gay fathers raising children in 2 states. Fathers reported on the barriers they experienced and the pathways they took to becoming parents. They reported also on experiences of stigma directed at them and their children, especially from family members, friends, and(More)
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