Learn More
According to Darwinian theory, complexity evolves by a stepwise process of elaboration and optimization under natural selection. Biological systems composed of tightly integrated parts seem to challenge this view, because it is not obvious how any element's function can be selected for unless the partners with which it interacts are already present. Here we(More)
BACKGROUND Dramatic changes in body size and pattern occurred during the radiation of many taxa in the Cambrian, and these changes are best documented for the arthropods. The sudden appearance of such diverse body plans raises the fundamental question of when the genes and the developmental control systems that regulate these designs evolved. As Hox genes(More)
Do new anatomical structures arise de novo, or do they evolve from pre-existing structures? Advances in developmental genetics, palaeontology and evolutionary developmental biology have recently shed light on the origins of some of the structures that most intrigued Charles Darwin, including animal eyes, tetrapod limbs and giant beetle horns. In each case,(More)
These notes represent approximately one semester's worth of lectures on introductory general relativity for beginning graduate students in physics. Topics include manifolds, Riemannian geometry, Einstein's equations, and three applications: grav-itational radiation, black holes, and cosmology. Individual chapters, and potentially updated versions, can be(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiomyoplasty (CMP) uses the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) to assist the heart in cases of cardiac failure. Distal ischemia and necrosis of the LDM is a recognized complication of CMP that can reduce distal muscle function and the mechanical effectiveness of CMP. METHODS Canine (n = 9) LDMs were subjected to a 10-day period of vascular delay(More)
Fibroblast growth factor stimulates proliferation and subsequent differentiation of precursor cells isolated from the neuroepithelium of embryonic day 10 mice in vitro. Here we show that fibroblast growth factor-induced proliferation is dependent on the presence of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and that IGF-I is endogenously produced by the(More)
Specific interactions among proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites drive virtually all cellular functions and underlie phenotypic complexity and diversity. Despite the fundamental importance of interactions, the mechanisms and dynamics by which they evolve are poorly understood. Here we describe novel interactions between a lineage-specific hormone and(More)
These notes provide a brief introduction to modern cosmology, focusing primarily on theoretical issues. Some attention is paid to aspects of potential interest to students of string theory, on both sides of the two-way street of cosmological constraints on string theory and stringy contributions to cosmology. Slightly updated version of lectures at the 1999(More)
Prevention of the metabolic syndrome and treatment of its main characteristics are now considered of utmost importance in order to combat the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to reduce the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia are consistently linked with a clustering of multiple(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to develop and validate a transparent, fair and objective assessment programme for the selection of surgical trainees into higher surgical training (HST) in plastic surgery in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS Thirty-four individuals applied for HST in plastic surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland(More)