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Psychophysiologists often use repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to analyze data collected in repeated measures research designs. ANOVA and MANOVA are nomothetic approaches that focus on group means. Newer multilevel modeling techniques are more informative than ANOVA because they characterize(More)
BACKGROUND The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been implicated in psychiatric disorders in which deficits of self-regulation are a prominent feature (e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders) and in dopamine D4 receptor insensitivity within prefrontal regions of the brain. Our hypothesis was that carriers of 7-repeats(More)
Small, nonreflexive pupillary changes are robust physiological indicators of cognitive activity. In the present paper, we examined whether measures of pupillary changes could be used to detect phasic lapses in alertness during a vigilance task. A polynomial curve-fitting method for quantifying parameters from single task-evoked pupillary responses (TEPRs)(More)
The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was(More)
Despite the tremendous public health and financial burden of cigarette smoking, relatively little is understood about brain mechanisms that subserve smoking behavior. This study investigated the effect of lifetime regular smoking on brain processing in a reward guessing task using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a co-twin control study design in(More)
Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants' ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1,(More)
Outcome expectancy is a central construct in models of addiction. Several outcome expectancies associated with smoking cigarettes have been identified, and studies suggest that individual differences in smoking expectancies are related to important aspects of tobacco use, including levels of smoking, nicotine dependence and smoking cessation. In the present(More)
INTRODUCTION Forms of childhood trauma tend to co-occur and are associated with increased risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders. Commonly used binary measures of trauma exposure have substantial limitations. METHODS We performed multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), separately by sex, using data from the Childhood Trauma (CT) Study's(More)
OBJECTIVE Antidepressant side effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation, and, rarely, significant harm. Older adults assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side effects and genetic variation in the(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol and tobacco use often co-occur. Human and animal studies indicate that nicotine increases alcohol's rewarding effects and the motivation to consume it. The aims of this study were to examine whether the factorial architecture of self-reported motivations to consume alcohol differed between regular and nonregular cigarette smokers while(More)