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Robustness is the invariance of phenotypes in the face of perturbation. The robustness of phenotypes appears at various levels of biological organization, including gene expression, protein folding, metabolic flux, physiological homeostasis, development, and even organismal fitness. The mechanisms underlying robustness are diverse, ranging from(More)
  • Sean H Rice
  • 2002
The development of most phenotypic traits involves complex interactions between many underlying factors, both genetic and environmental. To study the evolution of such processes, a set of mathematical relationships is derived that describe how selection acts to change the distribution of genetic variation given arbitrarily complex developmental interactions(More)
BACKGROUND Migration between local populations plays an important role in evolution - influencing local adaptation, speciation, extinction, and the maintenance of genetic variation. Like other evolutionary mechanisms, migration is a stochastic process, involving both random and deterministic elements. Many models of evolution have incorporated migration,(More)
  • S H Rice
  • 1995
Species selection, differential rates of speciation or extinction resulting from species level characters, is often invoked as the main mechanism of macroevolution that is not simply an extension of microevolutionary processes. So long as we are careful in defining "species", the logic of species selection is sound. This does not mean, however, that this(More)
A totally implantable drug pump was evaluated as a delivery system in the treatment of osteomyelitis. Gentamicin levels in rabbit serum and bone obtained by systemic administration are compared with levels in rabbit serum and bone obtained by local administration via an implantable drug pump. Systemic administration gave mean gentamicin bone levels ranging(More)
Osteomyelitis is usually treated with wide surgical debridement and prolonged intravenous antibiotics. The advent of the implantable drug pump has led us to evaluate this therapeutic modality for the treatment of osteomyelitis. We have previously shown that amikacin retains microbiologic activity in an implantable drug pump over a six-week period when(More)
The Bosworth fracture, a fixed posterior fracture-dislocation of the distal part of the fibula due to external rotation of the supinated foot, is a rare injury. In this report we review the literature, present two new cases, and describe our cadaver studies, showing that the initial stages of the injury are identical to those of a Maisonneuve fracture. The(More)
We are reporting on a previously undescribed surgical approach and postoperative protocol for the treatment of fractures of the lateral tibial plateau in which there is a split pattern and depression of the articular surface. In this approach the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus is incised and detached so that the split fragment can be opened like a(More)
  • S H Rice
  • 1997
Heterochrony has become a central organizing concept relating development and evolution. Unfortunately, the standard definition of heterochrony--evolutionary change in the rate or timing of developmental processes--is so broad as to apply to any case of phenotypic evolution. Conversely, the standard classes of heterochrony only accurately describe a small(More)