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Robustness is the invariance of phenotypes in the face of perturbation. The robustness of phenotypes appears at various levels of biological organization, including gene expression, protein folding, metabolic flux, physiological homeostasis, development, and even organismal fitness. The mechanisms underlying robustness are diverse, ranging from(More)
  • Sean H Rice
  • 2002
The development of most phenotypic traits involves complex interactions between many underlying factors, both genetic and environmental. To study the evolution of such processes, a set of mathematical relationships is derived that describe how selection acts to change the distribution of genetic variation given arbitrarily complex developmental interactions(More)
BACKGROUND Migration between local populations plays an important role in evolution - influencing local adaptation, speciation, extinction, and the maintenance of genetic variation. Like other evolutionary mechanisms, migration is a stochastic process, involving both random and deterministic elements. Many models of evolution have incorporated migration,(More)
  • S H Rice
  • 1995
Species selection, differential rates of speciation or extinction resulting from species level characters, is often invoked as the main mechanism of macroevolution that is not simply an extension of microevolutionary processes. So long as we are careful in defining "species", the logic of species selection is sound. This does not mean, however, that this(More)
  • S H Rice
  • 1997
Heterochrony has become a central organizing concept relating development and evolution. Unfortunately, the standard definition of heterochrony--evolutionary change in the rate or timing of developmental processes--is so broad as to apply to any case of phenotypic evolution. Conversely, the standard classes of heterochrony only accurately describe a small(More)
  • Sean H Rice
  • 1998
Evolution can change the developmental processes underlying a character without changing the average expression of the character itself. This sort of change must occur in both the evolution of canalization, in which a character becomes increasingly buffered against genetic or developmental variation, and in the phenomenon of closely related species that(More)
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