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Non-sewered sanitary systems (NSS) are emerging as one of the solutions to poor sanitation because of the limitations of the conventional flush toilet. These new sanitary systems are expected to safely treat faecal waste and operate without external connections to a sewer, water supply or energy source. The Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) is a unique(More)
Sound strategies for community water supply and sanitation programmes in developing countries should be based on a clear understanding of the existing problems, the beneficial impacts achievable, and the factors which determine sustainability. The impacts of many water and sanitation programmes are limited, and many systems break down and are abandoned(More)
This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facility on 10 occasions. Measurements were made of endotoxin and associated culturable microorganisms. The inflammatory response of cell cultures exposed(More)
Sewage sludge, a waste material commonly known as biosolids, has good potential as a valuable agricultural resource, providing that its nutrient imbalances could be overcome. Sewage sludge is rich in phosphorus but low in nitrogen and potassium. Technology exists to supplement sewage sludge with mineral fertilizers, such as urea and muriate of potash as(More)
Transformation of the tube-side mass transfer coefficient derived in hollow fibre membrane contactors (HFMC) of different characteristic length scales (equivalent diameter and fibre length) has been studied when operated in the low Graetz range (Gz<10). Within the low Gz range, mass transfer is generally described by the Graetz problem (Sh=3.67) which(More)
With about 2.4 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation facilities, there is a strong incentive for development of novel sanitation systems to improve the quality of life and reduce mortality. The Nano Membrane Toilet is expected to provide a unique household-scale system that would produce electricity and recover water from human(More)
Poor sanitation is one of the major hindrances to the global sustainable development goals. The Reinvent the Toilet Challenge of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is set to develop affordable, next-generation sanitary systems that can ensure safe treatment and wide accessibility without compromise on sustainable use of natural resources and the(More)
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