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Non-sewered sanitary systems (NSS) are emerging as one of the solutions to poor sanitation because of the limitations of the conventional flush toilet. These new sanitary systems are expected to safely treat faecal waste and operate without external connections to a sewer, water supply or energy source. The Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) is a unique(More)
The deterioration of drinking water quality following its collection from a community well or standpipe and during storage in the home has been well documented. However, there is a view that post-supply contamination is of little public health consequence. This paper explores the potential health risk from consuming re-contaminated drinking water. A(More)
Drinking water can become contaminated following its collection from communal sources such as wells and tap stands, as well as during its storage in the home. However, the mechanisms leading to contamination between the points of supply and consumption have not been well documented. This study carried out field-based experiments in three rural Honduran(More)
This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facility on 10 occasions. Measurements were made of endotoxin and associated culturable microorganisms. The inflammatory response of cell cultures exposed(More)
The impact of increasing organic load on anaerobic digestion foaming was studied at both full and bench scale. Organic loadings of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 kg VS m(-3) were applied to bench-scale digesters. Foaming was monitored at a full scale digester operated in a comparable organic loading range over 15 months. The bench scale batch studies identified 2.5 kg VS(More)
Sewage sludge, a waste material commonly known as biosolids, has good potential as a valuable agricultural resource, providing that its nutrient imbalances could be overcome. Sewage sludge is rich in phosphorus but low in nitrogen and potassium. Technology exists to supplement sewage sludge with mineral fertilizers, such as urea and muriate of potash as(More)
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Transformation of the tube-side mass transfer coefficient derived in hollow fibre membrane contactors (HFMC) of different characteristic length scales (equivalent diameter and fibre length) has been studied when operated in the low Graetz range (Gz<10). Within the low Gz range, mass transfer is generally described by the Graetz problem (Sh=3.67) which(More)
1 This paper presents a study to evaluate the recently developed enzymatic 2 hydrolysis test (EHT) through its repeated application to a waste treatment process. A 3 single waste treatment facility, involving a biodrying process, has been monitored using 4 three different methods to assess the biodegradable content of the organic waste fractions. 5 These(More)
Lack of sanitation affects the lives of billions of people worldwide. It is now generally agreed that sustainable solutions to this complex problem require social and cultural factors to be addressed in addition to the habitual economic and technical aspects. Increasingly, sector professionals view the fragmented approaches to sanitation as a limiting(More)