Sean F Monaghan

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INTRODUCTION Following trauma and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), the typical response is an elevation of the total complete blood count (CBC) and a reduction of the lymphocyte count. This leukocytosis typically returns to normal within 48 hours. The persistence of a leukocytosis following trauma is associated with adverse outcomes. Although(More)
INTRODUCTION Sepsis is a deadly inflammatory condition that often leads to an immune suppressed state; however, the events leading to this state remain poorly understood. B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an immune-regulatory receptor shown to effectively inhibit CD4+ T-cell function. Therefore, our objectives were to determine: 1) if lymphocyte BTLA(More)
Over the past two decades, it has become well accepted that sepsis exhibits two, oftentimes concomitant, inflammatory stages; a pro-inflammatory phase, referred to as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and an anti-inflammatory phase, called the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). Considering that therapeutic(More)
Identifying relevant mediators responsible for the pathogenesis during sepsis may lead to finding novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Recent studies indicate programmed cell death receptor (PD)-1 plays a significant role in the development of immune suppression associated with sepsis. In this study, we determine whether B7-H1, the primary ligand of(More)
Studies imply that intestinal barrier dysfunction is a key contributor to morbid events associated with sepsis. Recently, co-inhibitory molecule, programmed death-ligand1 (PD-L1) has been shown to be involved in the regulation of intestinal immune tolerance and/or inflammation. Our previous studies showed that PD-L1 gene deficiency reduced sepsis-induced(More)
Tube thoracostomy for thoracic injuries has been standard for only the last 40 years. Its theoretic roots trace back to World War II, where the goal of treatment was restoration of intrathoracic organ function. Thoracentesis was used to evacuate the hemopneumothorax resulting from chest trauma and that compromised pulmonary function. Experience gained in(More)
A proper innate inflammatory response is essential for prevention of the systemic inflammation associated with sepsis. BTLA is an immune-regulatory receptor demonstrated to be expressed not only on adaptive immune populations and have potent inhibitory effects on CD4(+) T cells but is also expressed on innate cell populations (CD11c(+) and CD11b(+) cells)(More)
Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) cells are emerging as key mediators of innate immune cellular and inflammatory responses to sepsis and peritonitis. Invariant natural killer T cells mediate survival following murine septic shock. Macrophages are pivotal to survival following sepsis. Invariant natural killer T cells have been shown to modulate various(More)
BACKGROUND Trauma produces profound inflammatory and immune responses. A second hit such as an infection further disrupts the inflammatory cascade. Inflammatory responses, following traumatic injuries, infections, or both, are emerging as biologic mediators of cardiac disease including myocardial ischemia and infarction. Inflammation-induced and(More)