Sean E. Hesselbacher

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Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former) over the age of 40.(More)
Endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment are early events in atherosclerosis and the vascular response to injury. Adenosine has anti-inflammatory effects on leukocytes and endothelial cells mediated through its A(2A) receptor. We tested the hypothesis that A(2A) activation would reduce inflammation and neointimal formation in a murine carotid(More)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains underdiagnosed, despite our understanding of its impact on general health. Current screening methods utilize either symptoms or physical exam findings suggestive of OSA, but not both. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel screening tool for the detection of OSA, the NAMES assessment (neck circumference,(More)
BACKGROUND Emerging data suggest that P-selectin, by controlling adhesion of white blood cells, may be important in limiting the response to vascular injury. METHODS AND RESULTS We tested the hypothesis that transient inhibition of P-selectin with either anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody (mAb) or anti-P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) mAb would(More)
BACKGROUND alpha(v)beta(3)-Integrin receptors are upregulated in atherosclerotic arteries and play a key role in smooth muscle cell and possibly inflammatory cell migration. We hypothesized that after balloon angioplasty (BA) of atherosclerotic arteries, selective inhibition of the alpha(v)beta(3)-receptor by XT199, a small-molecule, non-peptide-selective(More)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is influenced by sleep architecture with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep having the most adverse influence, especially in women. There is little data defining the influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on OSA. We wished to study the influence of SWS on OSA and identify differences attributable to gender and/or age, if any.(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperglycemia (HG) and hyperinsulinemia (HI) may be factors enhancing the atherosclerotic complications of diabetes. We hypothesized that specific feeding of C57BL/6 apolipoprotein (apo) E-/- mice would alter their metabolic profiles and result in different degrees of neointima (NI) formation. We additionally hypothesized that an(More)
INTRODUCTION The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is often used in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), though questions remain about the influence gender, ethnicity, and body morphometry have in the responses to this questionnaire. The aim of this study was to examine differences in ESS scores between various demographic groups of patients(More)
Cross-sectional studies have suggested a role for activation of adaptive immunity in smokers with emphysema, but the clinical application of these findings has not been explored. Here we examined the utility of detecting autoreactive T cells as a screening tool for emphysema in an at-risk population of smokers. We followed 156 former and current(More)
RATIONALE Cross-sectional studies of T-cell responses to self-antigens correlate with baseline emphysema severity. OBJECTIVES We investigated whether clinical and/or immunological factors could predict disease progression, such as emphysema, FEV1, and 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), in former and active smokers in a 5-year prospective study. METHODS We(More)