Sean D. Kristjansson

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Psychophysiologists often use repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to analyze data collected in repeated measures research designs. ANOVA and MANOVA are nomothetic approaches that focus on group means. Newer multilevel modeling techniques are more informative than ANOVA because they characterize(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic risk for alcohol dependence has been shown to overlap with genetic factors contributing to variation in dimensions of personality. Although drinking motives have been posited as important mediators of the alcohol-personality relation, the extent to which the genetic covariance between alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms (i.e., abuse and(More)
BACKGROUND The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been implicated in psychiatric disorders in which deficits of self-regulation are a prominent feature (e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders) and in dopamine D4 receptor insensitivity within prefrontal regions of the brain. Our hypothesis was that carriers of 7-repeats(More)
Small, nonreflexive pupillary changes are robust physiological indicators of cognitive activity. In the present paper, we examined whether measures of pupillary changes could be used to detect phasic lapses in alertness during a vigilance task. A polynomial curve-fitting method for quantifying parameters from single task-evoked pupillary responses (TEPRs)(More)
The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was(More)
Despite the tremendous public health and financial burden of cigarette smoking, relatively little is understood about brain mechanisms that subserve smoking behavior. This study investigated the effect of lifetime regular smoking on brain processing in a reward guessing task using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a co-twin control study design in(More)
Due to increasing requirements for security, the application and importance of biometrics is growing at a rapid pace. Biometrics is the science of using physiological or behavioral characteristics to determine or verify attributes of a person, including identity. Fingerprints, iris scans, face images, and retina scans are examples of measurements of(More)
Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants' ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1,(More)
Outcome expectancy is a central construct in models of addiction. Several outcome expectancies associated with smoking cigarettes have been identified, and studies suggest that individual differences in smoking expectancies are related to important aspects of tobacco use, including levels of smoking, nicotine dependence and smoking cessation. In the present(More)