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BACKGROUND Xpand® 2X is a proprietary blend comprised of branched chain amino acids, creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine (CarnoSyn®), quercetin, coenzymated B-vitamins, alanyl-glutamine (Sustamine®), and natural nitrate sources from pomegranate and beet root extracts purported to enhance the neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training. However to date,(More)
INTRODUCTION The lipid messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a critical role in the stimulation of mTOR signaling. However, the mechanism by which PA stimulates mTOR is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various PA precursors and phospholipids on their ability to stimulate mTOR signaling and its ability to(More)
Background The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to regulate rates of muscle protein synthesis, and one novel nutritional activator of mTOR is the phospho-lipid Phosphatidic Acid (PA). We have recently found that PA supplementation over 8 weeks of resistance training augmented responses in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength. However,(More)