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Nucleic acid synthesis is spatially organized in many organisms. In bacteria, however, the spatial distribution of transcription remains obscure, owing largely to the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy (200-300 nm). Here, we use photoactivated localization microscopy to localize individual molecules of RNA polymerase (RNAP) in Escherichia(More)
Super resolution microscopy such as STORM and (F)PALM is now a well known method for biological studies at the nanometer scale. However, conventional imaging schemes based on sparse activation of photo-switchable fluorescent probes have inherently slow temporal resolution which is a serious limitation when investigating live-cell dynamics. Here, we present(More)
We created a high-throughput modality of photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) that enables automated 3D PALM imaging of hundreds of synchronized bacteria during all stages of the cell cycle. We used high-throughput PALM to investigate the nanoscale organization of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ in live Caulobacter crescentus. We observed(More)
The analysis of structure and dynamics of biomolecules is important for understanding their function. Toward this aim, we introduce a method called 'switchable FRET', which combines single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) with reversible photoswitching of fluorophores. Typically, single-molecule FRET is measured within a single(More)
Single-molecule FRET (smFRET) has long been used as a molecular ruler for the study of biology on the nanoscale (∼2-10 nm); smFRET in total-internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) Förster resonance energy transfer (TIRF-FRET) microscopy allows multiple biomolecules to be simultaneously studied with high temporal and spatial resolution. To operate at the(More)
Histograms of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency are often used to study the structures of biomolecules and relate these structures to function. Methods like probability distribution analysis analyze FRET histograms to detect heterogeneities in molecular structure, but they cannot determine whether this heterogeneity arises(More)
The mechanism by which bacteria divide is not well understood. Cell division is mediated by filaments of FtsZ and FtsA (FtsAZ) that recruit septal peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes to the division site. To understand how these components coordinate to divide cells, we visualized their movements relative to the dynamics of cell wall synthesis during(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) localization-based super-resolution microscopy (SR) requires correction of aberrations to accurately represent 3D structure. Here we show how a depth-dependent lateral shift in the apparent position of a fluorescent point source, which we term `wobble`, results in warped 3D SR images and provide a software tool to correct this(More)