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Obtaining sufficient contrast is an indispensable requirement for detecting early stage cancer using optical coherence tomography (OCT), an emerging diagnostic tool that detects abnormal lesions with micrometer resolutions in real time. PEGylated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs; 87 nm in diameter) were formulated in aqueous dissolvable microneedles (dMNs; 200 μm(More)
To achieve desirable biomimetic motion, actuators must be able to reproduce the important features of natural muscle such as power, stress, strain, speed of response, efficiency, and controllability. It is a mistake, however, to consider muscle as only an energy output device. Muscle is multifunctional. In locomotion, muscle often acts as an energy(More)
We performed in situ detection of specific and nonspecific binding during immunoreaction on surfaces at the same location before and after analyte was injected using tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) in liquid and demonstrated the ability of TM-AFM to monitor the occurrence of single-molecule binding events and to distinguish nonspecific from(More)
We report on a continuous method for controlled electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers on two-dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) substrates using low voltage near-field electrospinning (LV NFES). The method overcomes some of the drawbacks in more conventional near-field electrospinning by using a superelastic polymer ink formulation. The(More)
In the past decade, dielectric elastomers have emerged as promising multifunctional smart energy-transduction materials in several actuation, sensing, and electric power generation applications. As actuators, dielectric elastomers have demonstrated strains (over 300%) and specific energy density (over 3.4 J/g) larger than that observed in any other(More)
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