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We tested whether significant leukocyte infiltration occurs in a mouse model of permanent cerebral ischemia. C57BL6/J male mice underwent either permanent (3 or 24 hours) or transient (1 or 2 hours+22- to 23-hour reperfusion) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Using flow cytometry, we observed ∼15,000 leukocytes (CD45(+high) cells) in the ischemic(More)
Inflammatory cells may contribute to secondary brain injury following cerebral ischemia. The C57Bl/6 mouse strain is known to exhibit a T helper 1-prone, pro-inflammatory type response to injury, whereas the FVB strain is relatively T helper 2-prone, or anti-inflammatory, in its immune response. We tested whether stroke outcome is more severe in C57Bl/6(More)
Intracerebral administration of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) agonist, CGP42112, is neuroprotective in a rat model of ischemic stroke. To explore further its possible cellular target(s) and therapeutic utility, we firstly examined whether CGP42112 may exert direct protective effects on primary neurons following glucose deprivation in vitro.(More)
This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of oyster shell extract on the production of pro-inflammatory factors [NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2)] and pro-inflammatory cytokines [Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and(More)
Functional modulation of the non-AT1R arm of the renin-angiotensin system, such as via AT2R activation, is known to improve stroke outcome. However, the relevance of the Mas receptor, which along with the AT2R forms the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system, as a target in stroke is unclear. Here we tested the efficacy of a selective MasR agonist,(More)
Clonidine, a partial alpha 2-agonist, has been used empirically to alleviate opiate withdrawal symptoms, but the mechanism of its effects is not completely understood. We studied the interactions of opioid and adrenergic receptor agonists in the NG108-15 cells, which are a model of opiate dependence. We determined that in these cells the adenylate cyclase(More)
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