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The endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses in Asia has led to the generation of reassortant H5 strains with novel gene constellations. A newly emerged HPAI A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks in the Republic of Korea in 2014. Because newly emerging high-pathogenicity H5 viruses continue to pose public health risks, it is(More)
While the effect of the influenza A virus non-structural protein (NS) on cytokine production during viral infection is well known, inconsistent results have been observed with some other influenza A virus backbone studied. In this study, in order to focus on the impact of the avian NS gene segments on viral virulence, the NS genes encoded by different(More)
A novel genotype of H5N6 influenza viruses was isolated from migratory birds in South Korea during November 2016. Domestic outbreaks of this virus were associated with die-offs of wild birds near reported poultry cases in Chungbuk province, central South Korea. Genetic analysis and animal studies demonstrated that the Korean H5N6 viruses are highly(More)
Coinfection of ferrets with H5N1 and pH1N1 viruses resulted in two predominate genotypes in the lungs containing surface genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in the backbone of pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1). Compared to parental strains, these reassortants exhibited increased growth and virulence in vitro and in mice but failed to be(More)
The threat of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses to cause the next pandemic remains a major concern. Here, we evaluated the cross-protection induced by natural infection of human seasonal influenza strains or immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) against HPAI H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) virus in ferrets. Groups(More)
Herbal medicine is used to treat many conditions such as asthma, eczema, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, headaches, menopausal symptoms, chronic fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, cancer, and viral infections such as influenza. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effect of KIOM-C for the treatment of influenza A virus(More)
Novel reassortant swine H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs in a commercial slaughterhouse in the Republic of Korea. Genome sequence analyses revealed that these isolates contain segments from Eurasian avian-like swine (hemagglutinin [HA]), Korean swine H1N2 (neuraminidase [NA]), and North American H3N2pM-like (remaining genes) viruses. Further(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses are found chiefly in birds and have caused severe disease and death in infected humans. Development of influenza vaccines capable of inducing heterosubtypic immunity against a broad range of influenza viruses is the best option for the preparedness, since vaccination remains the principal method in controlling(More)
Avian influenza A virus (AIV) is commonly isolated from domestic poultry and wild migratory birds, and the H9N2 subtype is the most prevalent and the major cause of severe disease in poultry in Korea. In addition to the veterinary concerns regarding the H9N2 subtype, it is also considered to be the next potential human pandemic strain due to its rapid(More)
Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants(More)