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The endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses in Asia has led to the generation of reassortant H5 strains with novel gene constellations. A newly emerged HPAI A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks in the Republic of Korea in 2014. Because newly emerging high-pathogenicity H5 viruses continue to pose public health risks, it is(More)
While the effect of the influenza A virus non-structural protein (NS) on cytokine production during viral infection is well known, inconsistent results have been observed with some other influenza A virus backbone studied. In this study, in order to focus on the impact of the avian NS gene segments on viral virulence, the NS genes encoded by different(More)
The threat of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses to cause the next pandemic remains a major concern. Here, we evaluated the cross-protection induced by natural infection of human seasonal influenza strains or immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) against HPAI H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) virus in ferrets. Groups(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses are found chiefly in birds and have caused severe disease and death in infected humans. Development of influenza vaccines capable of inducing heterosubtypic immunity against a broad range of influenza viruses is the best option for the preparedness, since vaccination remains the principal method in controlling(More)
In 2011-2012, contemporary North American-like H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) possessing the 2009 pandemic H1N1 matrix gene (H3N2pM-like virus) were detected in domestic pigs of South Korea where H1N2 SIV strains are endemic. More recently, we isolated novel reassortant H1N2 SIVs bearing the Eurasian avian-like swine H1-like hemagglutinin and Korean(More)
Herbal medicine is used to treat many conditions such as asthma, eczema, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, headaches, menopausal symptoms, chronic fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, cancer, and viral infections such as influenza. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effect of KIOM-C for the treatment of influenza A virus(More)
To investigate the molecular changes that allow influenza B viruses to adapt to new mammalian hosts, influenza B/Florida/04/2006 was serially passaged in BALB/c mice until highly virulent. The viral factors underlying this transition were then investigated in mice and ferrets. Five viruses, including the wild-type virus (P0), three intermediate viruses (P5,(More)
A novel genotype of H5N6 influenza viruses was isolated from migratory birds in South Korea during November 2016. Domestic outbreaks of this virus were associated with die-offs of wild birds near reported poultry cases in Chungbuk province, central South Korea. Genetic analysis and animal studies demonstrated that the Korean H5N6 viruses are highly(More)
Due to increasing concerns about human infection by various H7 influenza viruses, including recent H7N9 viruses, we evaluated the genetic relationships and cross-protective efficacies of three different Eurasian H7 avian influenza viruses. Phylogenic and molecular analyses revealed that recent Eurasian H7 viruses can be separated into two different(More)