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We developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) that uses root-derived callus. Evaluation of this protocol was based on the systematic evaluation of factors that influence transformation efficiency. Four of the five factors that were tested significantly affected the transformation efficiency,(More)
The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is a powerful tool in regenerative medicine, and advances in nanotechnology clearly have great potential to enhance stem cell research. Here, we introduce a liposomal magnetofection (LMF) method for iPS cell generation. Efficient conditions for generating virus-free iPS cells from mouse embryonic(More)
The glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) present in the female reproductive tract promote sperm capacitation. When bovine sperm were exposed to 10 μg/ml of one of four GAGs (Chondroitin sulfate, CS; Dermatan sulfate, DS; Hyaluronic acid, HA; Heparin, HP) for 5 h, the total motility (TM), straight-line velocity (VSL), and curvilinear velocity (VCL) were higher in the(More)
To preserve Jeju black cattle (JBC; endangered native Korean cattle), a pair of cattle, namely a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In the present study, we examined the in vitro fertilization and reproductive potentials of these post-death cloned animals. Sperm motility, in vitro(More)
Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and(More)
In order to understand the mechanism by which mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulates fertilization, we examined the effect of the MAPK pathway inhibitor U0126 on polyspermy, cortical granule reaction and mitosis in bovine oocytes during and after fertilization. Oocytes were treated with 30 microM U0126 for 30 min prior to insemination, or from 15(More)
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