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Platelet microparticles (PMP) are endogenous substances generated during the coagulation process in a hypercoagulable state. This study demonstrated that PMP promote the proliferation and survival, migration, and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Heat-treated PMP did not significantly decrease the angiogenic activity in HUVEC(More)
Cell death is a critical host response to regulate the fate of bacterial infections, innate immune responses, and ultimately, disease outcome. Shigella spp. invade and colonize gut epithelium in human and nonhuman primates but adult mice are naturally resistant to intra-gastric Shigella infection. In this study, however, we found Shigella could invade the(More)
In human and nonhuman primates, Shigella spp. cause bacillary dysentery by invading colon epithelium and promoting a strong inflammatory response; however, adult mice are resistant to oral Shigella infection. In this study, intraperitoneal challenge with virulent S. flexneri 2a (YSH6000) resulted in diarrhea and severe body weight loss in adult B6 mice. Of(More)
When a construction company builds a high structure, many piles should be driven into the ground by a hammer whose weight is 7,000 Kg in order to make the ground under the structure safe and strong. So, it is essential to determine whether a pile is penetrated into the ground enough to support the weight of the structure since ground characteristics at(More)
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