Many receptors for endocytosis recycle into and out of cells through early endosomes. We now find in dendritic cells that the DEC-205 multilectin receptor targets late endosomes or lysosomes rich in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) products, whereas the homologous macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), as expected, is found in more peripheral… (More)
Cell death is a critical host response to regulate the fate of bacterial infections, innate immune responses, and ultimately, disease outcome. Shigella spp. invade and colonize gut epithelium in human and nonhuman primates but adult mice are naturally resistant to intra-gastric Shigella infection. In this study, however, we found Shigella could invade the… (More)
The protective effect of ginsenoside Re, isolated from ginseng berry, against acute gastric mucosal lesions was examined in rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 (C48/80). Ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg) was orally administered 0.5 h prior to C48/80 treatment. Ginsenoside Re dose-dependently prevented gastric mucosal lesion… (More)
The berry of Panax ginseng significantly inhibited the histamine releases at the concentration of 30 μg/mL (p<0.05) and 10 μg/mL (p<0.01). The ginsenoside Re from ginseng berry was found out to have a potent effect in the experiment of histamin and cytokine release.
Peroxiredoxin-3 (Prdx3) is a mitochondrial protein of the thioredoxin family of antioxidant peroxidases and is the principal peroxidase responsible for metabolizing mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide. Recent reports have shown that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) contribute to macrophage-mediated bactericidal activity in response to Toll-like… (More)
The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO and UNICEF concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The presentation of data and… (More)
When a construction company builds a high structure, many piles should be driven into the ground by a hammer whose weight is 7,000 Kg in order to make the ground under the structure safe and strong. So, it is essential to determine whether a pile is penetrated into the ground enough to support the weight of the structure since ground characteristics at… (More)