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BACKGROUND The opioid sparing effect of low dose ketamine is influenced by bolus dose, infusion rate, duration of infusion, and differences in the intensity of postoperative pain. In this study, we investigated the opioid sparing effect of low dose ketamine in patients with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) using fentanyl after lumbar spinal(More)
Growth differentiation factor (GDF) 15 is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily, which operates in acute phase responses through a currently unknown receptor. Elevated GDF-15 serum levels were recently identified as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes. We show that GDF-15 expression is up-regulated as disease progresses in(More)
BACKGROUND Myostatin (Mstn) and growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) are highly related transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) family members that play important roles in regulating embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Despite their high degree of sequence identity, targeted mutations in these genes result in non-overlapping phenotypes(More)
VIDEO ABSTRACT The VAPB/ALS8 major sperm protein domain (vMSP) is implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy, yet its function in the nervous system is not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, the vMSP is cleaved from its transmembrane anchor and secreted in a cell type-specific fashion. We show that vMSPs(More)
Amyloid-β (Aβ) is one of the few neuropathological biomarkers associated with transporters of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Despite the well-characterized clinical indication of decreasing Aβ levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the link between the alternation of Aβ level in the blood and the progress(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in(More)
The purpose of our study was to compare two acquired muscle atrophies and the use of myostatin inhibition for their treatment. Myostatin naturally inhibits skeletal muscle growth by binding to ActRIIB, a receptor on the cell surface of myofibers. Because blocking myostatin in an adult wild-type mouse induces profound muscle hypertrophy, we applied a soluble(More)