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Imbalance in excitatory/inhibitory signal in the brain has been proposed as one of the main pathological features in autism spectrum disorders, although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is unclear yet. Because excitatory/inhibitory imbalance can be induced by aberration in glutamatergic/GABAergic neuronal differentiation, we investigated the(More)
Thrombin plays an important role in diverse neurological processes such as proliferation, cell migration, differentiation and neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of thrombin on matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) expression in rat primary astrocytes. Thrombin (1-10U/ml) induced a significant increase in MMP-9 activity as measured by(More)
UNLABELLED J. Neurochem. (2012) 123, 226-238. ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common single genetic cause of mental retardation and autistic spectrum disease, occurs when FMR1 gene is mutated. FMR1 encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) which regulates translation of mRNAs playing important roles in the development of neurons as(More)
BACKGROUND Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most commonly inherited mental retardation and single gene cause of autistic spectrum disorder, occurs when the Fmr1 gene is mutated. The product of Fmr1, fragile X linked mental retardation protein (FMRP) is widely expressed in HeLa cells, however the roles of FMRP within HeLa cells were not elucidated, yet.(More)
As a member of neurotrophin family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays critical roles in neuronal development, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and neural protection from the harmful stimuli. There have been reported that adenosine A2(A) receptor subtype is widely distributed in the brain regions, such as hippocampus, striatum, and cortex.(More)
Oroxylin A (5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyfavone) is a flavonoid compound originated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Our previous reports suggested that oroxylin A improves memory function in rat, at least in part, by its antagonistic effects on GABA(A) receptor. In addition, oroxylin A protects neurons from ischemic damage by mechanisms currently(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by three main behavioral symptoms including social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped and repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence shows gender bias to male. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a drug used in epilepsy and bipolar disorder, induces autistic(More)
During hemorrhagic stroke induced by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), brain injury occurs from the deleterious actions of hemoglobin byproducts; induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) also plays a critical role in the neurotoxicity in ICH. Valproic acid (VPA), which is a commonly used drug in the treatment of epilepsy, has been reported to have neuroprotective(More)
Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social isolation and lack of interaction. Anatomically, autism patients often show macrocephaly and high neuronal density. To investigate the mechanism underlying the higher neuronal populations seen in ASD, we subcutaneously injected VPA (400 mg/kg) into pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats on(More)
Oroxylin A is a flavone isolated from a medicinal herb reported to be effective in reducing the inflammatory and oxidative stresses. It also modulates the production of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in cortical neurons by the transactivation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). As a neurotrophin, BDNF plays roles in neuronal(More)