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Imbalance in excitatory/inhibitory signal in the brain has been proposed as one of the main pathological features in autism spectrum disorders, although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is unclear yet. Because excitatory/inhibitory imbalance can be induced by aberration in glutamatergic/GABAergic neuronal differentiation, we investigated the(More)
During hemorrhagic stroke induced by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), brain injury occurs from the deleterious actions of hemoglobin byproducts; induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) also plays a critical role in the neurotoxicity in ICH. Valproic acid (VPA), which is a commonly used drug in the treatment of epilepsy, has been reported to have neuroprotective(More)
Thrombin plays an important role in diverse neurological processes such as proliferation, cell migration, differentiation and neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of thrombin on matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) expression in rat primary astrocytes. Thrombin (1-10U/ml) induced a significant increase in MMP-9 activity as measured by(More)
This work was undertaken in order to study the developmental competence of nuclear transfer (NT) into cat embryos using fetal fibroblast and adult skin fibroblast cells as donor nuclei. Oocytes were recovered by mincing the ovaries in Hepes-buffered TCM199 and selecting the cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) with compact cumulus cell mass and dark color.(More)
As a member of neurotrophin family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays critical roles in neuronal development, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and neural protection from the harmful stimuli. There have been reported that adenosine A2(A) receptor subtype is widely distributed in the brain regions, such as hippocampus, striatum, and cortex.(More)
Oroxylin A (5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyfavone) is a flavonoid compound originated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Our previous reports suggested that oroxylin A improves memory function in rat, at least in part, by its antagonistic effects on GABA(A) receptor. In addition, oroxylin A protects neurons from ischemic damage by mechanisms currently(More)
Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social isolation and lack of interaction. Anatomically, autism patients often show macrocephaly and high neuronal density. To investigate the mechanism underlying the higher neuronal populations seen in ASD, we subcutaneously injected VPA (400 mg/kg) into pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats on(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by three main behavioral symptoms including social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped and repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence shows gender bias to male. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a drug used in epilepsy and bipolar disorder, induces autistic(More)
UNLABELLED J. Neurochem. (2012) 123, 226-238. ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common single genetic cause of mental retardation and autistic spectrum disease, occurs when FMR1 gene is mutated. FMR1 encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) which regulates translation of mRNAs playing important roles in the development of neurons as(More)
Capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae are representative T-cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens, frequently causing serious infections in children, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. However, the detailed mechanism of this immune escape by CPSs is poorly understood. To pursue this question, polysaccharide dextran, ligand of(More)