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Brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma are extremely rare. The objectives of the current study were to assess the natural history, outcome, and possible prognostic factors in patients with brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Between 1995 and 2006, 6,919 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were treated at Yonsei University Health(More)
There are few data on the clinical implications of immunosuppressive protein expression in tumors and immune cell infiltration within the tumor microenvironment in patients with gastric cancer (GC). In this study, 243 patients with curatively resected GC were included. The levels of immunosuppressive protein expression [programmed cell death 1 ligand 1(More)
BACKGROUND Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to play an important role in the development of cervical carcinoma, and it is known that certain HPV types, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, are highly associated with cervical carcinoma. However, the pathologic behavior of other HPV types remains unclear. Recently, a new HPV detection technique, the(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) was recently suggested to be a potential target of psychotropics used in psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Relevant studies have found that antipsychotic drugs regulate GSK3 activity via an increase in either inhibitory serine phosphorylation or amount of GSK3 after acute or subchronic(More)
OBJECTIVE Inadequate response to clozapine poses a substantial problem in the pharmaco-therapy of refractory schizophrenia. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole augmentation in clozapine-treated patients with refractory schizophrenia. METHOD Patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia who had a(More)
Early growth response (EGR) genes play critical roles in signal transduction in the brain, which is involved in neuronal activation, brain development, and synaptic plasticity. EGR genes, including EGR2, EGR3, and EGR4, showed significant association with schizophrenia in Japanese schizophrenic pedigrees. In particular, EGR3, which resides at the(More)
Genes associated with circadian rhythms have been suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3'-flanking region of CLOCK (3111T/C; rs1801260) has been reported to be associated with sleep disturbances and an increased recurrence rate in patients with bipolar disorder. We(More)
GSK-3beta is regarded as playing an important part in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and the action of psychotomimetic agents. We observed phosphorylation of molecules associated with the GSK-3beta signalling pathway in the rat brain after MK-801 injection, which induces a schizophrenia-like state in humans. Ser9-GSK-3beta phosphorylation was increased(More)
Voluntary exercise is known to have an antidepressant effect. However, the underlying mechanism for this antidepressant action of exercise remains unclear, and little progress has been made in identifying genes that are directly involved. We have identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by analyzing existing mRNA microarray data and confirmed(More)
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate metabolism, plays an important role in DNA methylation. It has been suggested that abnormal DNA methylation contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and congenital anomalies. The previous findings regarding the genetic relationship between MTHFR and schizophrenia are(More)