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The ventral midline of the nervous system is an important choice point at which growing axons decide whether to cross and project contralaterally or remain on the same side of the brain. In Drosophila, the decision to cross or avoid the CNS midline is controlled, at least in part, by the Roundabout (Robo) receptor on the axons and its ligand, Slit, an(More)
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons diverge within the optic chiasm to project to opposite sides of the brain. In mouse, contralateral RGCs are distributed throughout the retina, whereas ipsilateral RGCs are restricted to the ventrotemporal crescent (VTC). While repulsive guidance mechanisms play a major role in the formation of the ipsilateral projection,(More)
In animals with binocular vision, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons either cross or avoid the midline at the optic chiasm. Here, we show that ephrin-Bs in the chiasm region direct the divergence of retinal axons through the selective repulsion of a subset of RGCs that express EphB1. Ephrin-B2 is expressed at the mouse chiasm midline as the ipsilateral(More)
Stem and progenitor cells use asymmetric cell divisions to balance proliferation and differentiation. Evidence from invertebrates shows that this process is regulated by proteins asymmetrically distributed at the cell cortex during mitosis: Par3-Par6-aPKC, which confer polarity, and Gα(i)-LGN/AGS3-NuMA-dynein/dynactin, which govern spindle positioning. Here(More)
Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins regulate the geometry of the actin cytoskeleton, thereby influencing cell morphology and motility. Analysis of invertebrate mutants implicates Ena/VASP function in several actin-dependent processes such as axon and dendritic guidance, cell migration, and dorsal closure. In vertebrates, genetic(More)
In animals with binocular vision, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons from each eye sort in the developing ventral diencephalon to project to ipsi- or contralateral targets, thereby forming the optic chiasm. Ipsilaterally projecting axons arise from the ventrotemporal (VT) retina and contralaterally projecting axons primarily from the other retinal quadrants.(More)
The mouse optic chiasm is a model for axon guidance at the midline and for analyzing how binocular vision is patterned. Recent work has identified several molecular players that influence the binary decision that retinal ganglion cells make at the optic chiasm, to either cross or avoid the midline. An ephrin-B localized to the midline, together with an EphB(More)
Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands play important roles in many aspects of visual system development. In this study, we characterized the spatial and temporal expression pattern of EphA4 in astrocyte precursor cell (APC) and astrocyte populations in the murine retina and optic nerve. EphA4 is expressed by immotile optic disc astrocyte precursor cells(More)
During development, the establishment of proper tissue architecture depends upon the coordinated control of cell divisions not only in space and time, but also direction. Execution of an oriented cell division requires establishment of an axis of polarity and alignment of the mitotic spindle along this axis. Frequently, the cleavage plane also segregates(More)