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OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to define qualitatively the nature and extent of white and gray matter abnormalities in a longitudinal population-based study of infants with very low birth weight. Perinatal factors were then related to the presence and severity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities. METHODS From November 1998 to December(More)
Johne's disease ('paratuberculosis') is a chronic, infectious, wasting disease that affects dairy cattle. Estimation of its impact on herd productivity and corresponding economic loss on US dairy operations was part of the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 1996 national dairy study. Johne's-positive herds experience an economic loss of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The accuracy of cranial sonography (US) in characterizing white matter (WM) injury in the premature infant is unclear. This study was aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of serial cranial US during the first 6 weeks of life in comparison to MR imaging at term (week of expected delivery) in characterizing the presence of WM(More)
Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Arcobacter spp. were detected in feces of healthy dairy cows by highly specific multiplex-PCR assays. For C. jejuni, at this one-time sampling, cows from 80.6% of farm operations (n = 31) and 37.7% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 2,085) were positive. Farm management factors were correlated with(More)
The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA and fecal culture tests for paratuberculosis in dairy cattle are examined. ELISA and fecal culture data from seven dairy herds where both fecal cultures and ELISA testing was done concurrently are included. A cohort of 954 cattle including 697 parturient adults, cultured every 6 months from 10 herds followed over(More)
The report provided here contains a simplified set of diagnostic testing recommendations. These recommendations were developed on the basis of research funded by the USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Veterinary Services through a cooperative agreement. The report is intended to provide simple, practical, cost-effective consensus testing(More)
Five diagnostic tests based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology for bovine paratuberculosis were evaluated by using individual serum or milk samples from 359 dairy cattle in seven paratuberculosis-free herds and 2,094 dairy cattle in seven Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected dairy herds. Three independent laboratories using three(More)
The primary objective was to compare reported antimicrobial usage between conventional and organic dairy farms. A secondary objective was to contrast selected management characteristics of conventional and organic dairy herds. A questionnaire was administered on site to selected dairy farmers located in Michigan, Minnesota, New York, and Wisconsin. Organic(More)
Fecal samples were collected from 4,361 dairy cows on 91 dairy operations between 26 February and 8 July 1996. Fecal samples were cultured for Escherichia coli O157, and positive isolates were probed for verotoxin-producing genes. A total of 52 (1.2%) fecal samples on 22 (24.2%) operations were positive for verotoxin-producing E. coli O157. Herds in which(More)
As part of a national study of the U.S. dairy cow population, fecal samples were collected from representative cows on 91 dairies and 97 cull dairy cow markets in 19 states. Salmonella spp. were recovered from 5.4% of milk cows, 18.1% of milk cows expected to be culled within 7 days, and 14.9% of culled dairy cows at markets. On a premise basis, Salmonella(More)