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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and virus neutralization assays indicated that red colobus monkeys in Kibale National Park, western Uganda, had antibodies to a virus that was similar, but not identical, to known orthopoxviruses. The presence of a novel poxvirus in this endangered primate raises public health and conservation concerns.
Bovine enteric caliciviruses (BoCVs) have been classified in the Norovirus (Norwalk-like virus) genus of the Caliciviridae, raising questions about zoonotic transmission and an animal reservoir for the human Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs), an important cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. We examined the genetic relationship of human NLVs to BoCVs(More)
Inefficient muscle long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion is associated with insulin resistance, but molecular links between mitochondrial fat catabolism and insulin action remain controversial. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitine profiling would identify distinct metabolite patterns reflective of muscle fat catabolism when comparing individuals(More)
The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies demonstrated that saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids reciprocally modulate the activation of TLR4.(More)
Orthopoxviruses are among the largest and most complex of the animal viruses. In response to the recent emergence of monkeypox in Africa and the threat of smallpox bioterrorism, two orthopoxviruses with different pathogenic potentials, human monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus, were proteomically compared with the goal of identifying proteins required for(More)
Nonhuman primates have been used for biomedical research for several decades. The high level of genetic homology to humans coupled with their outbred nature has made nonhuman primates invaluable preclinical models. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the nonhuman primate immune system, with special emphasis on studies(More)
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein has been found in the nucleus, the cytoplasm, or both of HBV-infected hepatocytes. However, the mechanism that regulates the subcellular localization of the HBV core protein is still unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that nuclear localization of the HBV core protein is cell cycle-regulated in two different cell(More)
Rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) is currently the closest known, fully sequenced homolog of human Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Both these viruses encode complement inhibitors as follows: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-complement control protein (KCP) and RRV-complement control protein (RCP). Previously we characterized in detail the functional(More)
The Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been reported to enhance virion release from infected cells and to down-regulate the expression of CD4 on infected cells. Previous studies have shown that Vpu and the envelope glycoprotein precursor (gp160) are translated from different reading frames of the same bicistronic messenger RNA(More)
BACKGROUND Risk of encephalitis from West Nile virus (WNV) infection increases dramatically with age. Understanding the basis of this susceptibility requires development of suitable animal models. Here, we investigated the immune response to WNV in old non-human primates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We investigated clinical, immunological and(More)