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The flux of nitrogen from land and atmosphere to estuaries and the coastal ocean has increased substantially in recent decades. The observed increase in nitrogen loading is caused by population growth, urbanization, expanding water and sewer infrastructure, fossil fuel combustion and synthetic fertilizer consumption. Most of the nitrogen is removed by(More)
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Prior to construction of the Aswan High Dam, the annual Nile flood delivered about 7-11 x 10(3) t of biologically available phosphorus (P), at least 7 x 10(3) t of inorganic nitrogen (N), and 110 x 10(3) t of silica (Si) to the Mediterranean coastal waters off Egypt. These nutrients stimulated a dramatic "Nile bloom" of diatoms which supported a productive(More)
Both fisheries exploitation and increased nutrient loadings strongly affect fish and shellfish abundance and production in estuaries. These stressors do not act independently; instead, they jointly influence food webs, and each affects the sensitivity of species and ecosystems to the other. Nutrient enrichment and the habitat degradation it sometimes causes(More)
It is important to view eutrophication as an increase in the supply of organic matter to an ecosystem rather than as a simple problem of nutrient pollution. This emphasizes that eutrophication is a fundamental change in the energetic base that may propagate through the system in various ways and produce a variety of changes. Some of these changes may be(More)
Coastal marine sediments are shown to be a net source of nitrous oxide. The rates of nitrous oxide flux from sediments in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, ranged from 20 to more than 900 nanomoles per square meter per hour. Sediments from a eutrophic area had higher rates of net nitrous oxide production than sediments from relatively unpolluted sites. The(More)
A mussel bed dominated by Mytilus edulis contained large concentrations of living consumer biomass, with over 14 kg dry weight/m2 distributed among eleven species. An additional 14.4 kg dry weight/m2 was present as empty shell fragments that contributed to community structure. Field measurements of community respiration for this dense animal system showed a(More)
The highly productive coastal Mediterranean fishery off the Nile River delta collapsed after the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1965. But the fishery has been recovering dramatically since the mid-1980s, coincident with large increases in fertilizer application and sewage discharge in Egypt. We use stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) to(More)
Environmental factors, including the supply of organic matter and inorganic nutrient concentrations, are thought to influence rates of two opposing processes in the nitrogen (N) cycle, denitrification and N fixation. Using sediment cores from a temperate estuary we examined the effects of nitrate, phosphate, and ammonium enrichment of the overlying water on(More)