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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 viral protein U (Vpu) protein enhances the release of diverse retroviruses from human, but not monkey, cells and is thought to do so by ablating a dominant restriction to particle release. Here, we determined how Vpu expression affects the subcellular distribution of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MLV) Gag(More)
HECT (homologous to the E6AP C terminus) ubiquitin ligases have diverse functions in eukaryotic cells. In screens for proteins that bind to the HECT ubiquitin ligase WWP1, we identified Spartin, which is also known as SPG20. This protein is truncated in a neurological disease, Troyer syndrome. In this study, we show that SPG20 associates with the surface of(More)
Many enveloped viruses exploit the class E vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) pathway to bud from cells, and use peptide motifs to recruit specific class E VPS factors. Homologous to E6AP COOH terminus (HECT) ubiquitin ligases have been implicated as cofactors for PPXY motif-dependent budding, but precisely which members of this family are responsible, and how(More)
Bi-specific antibodies (BsAbs), which can simultaneously block 2 tumor targets, have emerged as promising therapeutic alternatives to combinations of individual monoclonal antibodies. Here, we describe the engineering and development of a novel, human bi-functional antibody-receptor domain fusion molecule with ligand capture (bi-AbCap) through the fusion of(More)
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