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This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important issues are(More)
We report results from a genome wide association study (GWAS) of five quantitative indicators of behavioral disinhibition: nicotine, alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence, illicit drugs, and non-substance related behavioral disinhibition. The sample, consisting of 7,188 Caucasian individuals clustered in 2,300 nuclear families, was genotyped on over(More)
Behavioral disinhibition is a trait hypothesized to represent a general vulnerability to the development of substance use disorders. We used a large community-representative sample (N = 7,188) to investigate the genetic and environmental relationships among measures of behavioral disinhibition, Nicotine Use/Dependence, Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol(More)
All states have statutes in place to civilly commit individuals at high risk for violence. The authors address difficulties in assessing such risk but use as an example the task of predicting sexual violence recidivism; the principles espoused here generalize to predicting all violence. As part of the commitment process, mental health professionals, who are(More)
The present study evaluated gene by development interaction in cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in a longitudinal community-representative sample (N = 3,231) of Caucasian twins measured at ages 14, 17, 20, and 24. Biometric heritability analyses show strong heritabilities and shared environmental influences, as well as cross-age genetic and shared(More)
BACKGROUND Substance use is heritable, but few common genetic variants have been associated with these behaviors. Rare nonsynonymous exonic variants can now be efficiently genotyped, allowing exome-wide association tests. We identified and tested 111,592 nonsynonymous exonic variants for association with behavioral disinhibition and the use/misuse of(More)
OBJECTIVE Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated high rates of comorbidity among substance use disorders. However, few studies have examined the developmental course of incident comorbidity and how it changes from adolescence to adulthood. The authors examine patterns of comorbidity among substance use disorders to gain insight into the effect of shared(More)
We review and summarize seven molecular genetic studies of 17 psychophysiological endophenotypes that comprise this special issue of Psychophysiology, address criticisms raised in accompanying Perspective and Commentary pieces, and offer suggestions for future research. Endophenotypes are polygenic, and possibly influenced by rare genetic variants. Because(More)
This article serves to outline a research paradigm to investigate main effects and interactions of genes, environment, and development on behavior and psychiatric illness. We provide a historical context for candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies, including benefits, limitations, and expected payoffs. Using substance use and abuse as our(More)
We describe a reference panel of 64,976 human haplotypes at 39,235,157 SNPs constructed using whole-genome sequence data from 20 studies of predominantly European ancestry. Using this resource leads to accurate genotype imputation at minor allele frequencies as low as 0.1% and a large increase in the number of SNPs tested in association studies, and it can(More)