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Functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and limbic and neocortical areas was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of urethane anesthetized rats that spontaneously cycled between slow-wave and fast-wave states. Slow-wave and fast-wave states were determined indirectly through monitoring of respiration rate, which was(More)
RATIONALE Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex is a measure of sensorimotor gating, which occurs across species and is deficient in severe neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. In monkeys, as in rodents, phencyclidine (PCP) induces schizophrenia-like deficits in PPI. In rodents, in general, typical antipsychotics (e.g.(More)
The cuprizone mouse model is well established for studying the processes of both demyelination and remyelination in the corpus callosum, and it has been utilized together with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate myelin and axonal pathology. Although some underlying morphological mechanisms contributing to the changes in diffusion tensor (DT)(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful magnetic resonance imaging tool for quantitative assessment of white matter micro structure. The majority of DTI methods employ Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) because it is insensitive to motion. However, EPI suffers from distortions and signal losses induced by inhomogeneities in magnetic field susceptibility. This(More)
Although many resting state fMRI human studies have been published, the number of such rodent studies is considerably less. The reason for this is the severe technical challenge of high magnetic field small rodent imaging. Local magnetic field susceptibility changes at air tissue boundaries cause image distortion and signal losses. The current study reports(More)
Trisomy 21, or Down's syndrome (DS), is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Altered neurotransmission in the brains of DS patients leads to hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficiency. Although genetic mouse models have provided important insights into the genes and mechanisms responsible for DS-specific changes, the molecular(More)
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, and decreased volume of the whole brain and cerebral cortex. Rodent models have shown that early postnatal treatments, which mimic ethanol toxicity in the third trimester of human pregnancy, acutely induce widespread apoptotic neuronal degeneration and permanent(More)
Caregiver maltreatment induces vulnerability to later-life psychopathology. Clinical and preclinical evidence suggest changes in prefrontal and limbic circuitry underlie this susceptibility. We examined this question using a rat model of maternal maltreatment and methods translated from humans, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI).(More)
Stimulant treatment is highly effective in mitigating symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), though the neurobiological underpinnings of this effect have not been established. Studies using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with ADHD have suggested that long-term stimulant treatment may improve(More)
Brain activation studies in humans have shown the dynamic nature of neuronal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) based on changes in their MRS signals in response to stimulation. These studies demonstrated that upon visual stimulation there was a focal increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and a decrease in NAA or in the total of(More)