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The estimation of species trees (phylogenies) is one of the most important problems in evolutionary biology, and recently, there has been greater appreciation of the need to estimate species trees directly rather than using gene trees as a surrogate. A Bayesian method constructed under the multispecies coalescent model can consistently estimate species(More)
BACKGROUND Several phylogenetic approaches have been developed to estimate species trees from collections of gene trees. However, maximum likelihood approaches for estimating species trees under the coalescent model are limited. Although the likelihood of a species tree under the multispecies coalescent model has already been derived by Rannala and Yang, it(More)
The advent and maturation of algorithms for estimating species trees-phylogenetic trees that allow gene tree heterogeneity and whose tips represent lineages, populations and species, as opposed to genes-represent an exciting confluence of phylogenetics, phylogeography, and population genetics, and ushers in a new generation of concepts and challenges for(More)
Molecular methods as applied to the biogeography of single species (phylogeography) or multiple codistributed species (comparative phylogeography) have been productively and extensively used to elucidate common historical features in the diversification of the Earth's biota. However, only recently have methods for estimating population divergence times or(More)
Several techniques, such as concatenation and consensus methods, are available for combining data from multiple loci to produce a single statement of phylogenetic relationships. However, when multiple alleles are sampled from individual species, it becomes more challenging to estimate relationships at the level of species, either because concatenation(More)
Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion(More)
I Abstract Molecular clocks have profoundly influenced modern views on the timing of important events in evolutionary history. We review recent advances in estimating divergence times from molecular data, emphasizing the continuum between processes at the phylogenetic and population genetic scales. On the phylogenetic scale, we address the complexities of(More)
The concatenation method has been widely used as a means of combining data to estimate phylogenetic trees (Huelsenbeck et al. 1996a, 1996b; Glazko and Nei 2003). However, simulation studies have shown that the maximum likelihood (ML) estimate of the species tree for concatenated sequences may be statistically inconsistent if the gene trees are highly(More)
The zebra finch is an important model organism in several fields with unique relevance to human neuroscience. Like other songbirds, the zebra finch communicates through learned vocalizations, an ability otherwise documented only in humans and a few other animals and lacking in the chicken-the only bird with a sequenced genome until now. Here we present a(More)