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U1 snRNP (U1), in addition to its splicing role, protects pre-mRNAs from drastic premature termination by cleavage and polyadenylation (PCPA) at cryptic polyadenylation signals (PASs) in introns. Here, a high-throughput sequencing strategy of differentially expressed transcripts (HIDE-seq) mapped PCPA sites genome wide in divergent organisms. Surprisingly,(More)
HIV infection can be treated effectively with antiretroviral agents, but the persistence of a latent reservoir of integrated proviruses prevents eradication of HIV from infected individuals. The chromosomal environment of integrated proviruses has been proposed to influence HIV latency, but the determinants of transcriptional repression have not been fully(More)
HIV-1 entry requires the cell surface expression of CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors on host cells. Individuals homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 polymorphism do not express CCR5 and are protected from infection by CCR5-tropic (R5) virus strains. As an approach to inactivating CCR5, we introduced CCR5-specific zinc-finger nucleases into human CD4+ T(More)
MOTIVATION The variation in community composition between microbiome samples, termed beta diversity, can be measured by pairwise distance based on either presence-absence or quantitative species abundance data. PERMANOVA, a permutation-based extension of multivariate analysis of variance to a matrix of pairwise distances, partitions within-group and(More)
Eukaryotic microorganisms are important but understudied components of the human microbiome. Here we present a pipeline for analysis of deep sequencing data on single cell eukaryotes. We designed a new 18S rRNA gene-specific PCR primer set and compared a published rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene primer set. Amplicons were tested against 24(More)
Alternative RNA splicing greatly expands the repertoire of proteins encoded by genomes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is attractive for studying alternative splicing because of the efficiency and low cost per base, but short reads typical of NGS only report mRNA fragments containing one or few splice junctions. Here, we used single-molecule amplification(More)
The North Atlantic right whale is one of the most critically endangered marine species. Drastic overexploitation has driven this large, slow-swimming baleen whale to virtual extinction in Europe, while a small remnant population of ~350 individuals remains on the US and Canadian east coast. Although this species has been protected for 70 years, recovery has(More)
UNLABELLED The genomic DNAs of tailed bacteriophages are commonly modified by the attachment of chemical groups. Some forms of DNA modification are known to protect phage DNA from cleavage by restriction enzymes, but others are of unknown function. Recently, the CRISPR-Cas nuclease complexes were shown to mediate bacterial adaptive immunity by RNA-guided(More)
HIV infection has been reported to alter cellular gene activity, but published studies have commonly assayed transformed cell lines and lab-adapted HIV strains, yielding inconsistent results. Here we carried out a deep RNA-Seq analysis of primary human T cells infected with the low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6. Seventeen percent of cellular genes showed(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have suggested that bacteria associated with the placenta-a "placental microbiome"-may be important in reproductive health and disease. However, a challenge in working with specimens with low bacterial biomass, such as placental samples, is that some or all of the bacterial DNA may derive from contamination in dust or commercial(More)