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In this paper we explore the degree to which patents are representative of the magnitude , direction, and impact of the knowledge spilling out of the university by focusing on MIT, and in particular on the departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. Drawing on both qualitative and quantitative data, we show that patenting is a minority activity: a(More)
Licensing Office (TLO) for access to the data on MIT patents and for answering many questions about the data and TLO policies and procedures. We would also like to thank David Hsu for extensive comments on an earlier draft of this paper. ABSTRACT The question of how initial resource endowments—the stocks of resources that entrepreneurs contribute to their(More)
E xplaining how entrepreneurs overcome information asymmetry between themselves and potential investors to obtain financing is an important issue for entrepreneurship research. Our premise is that economic explanations for venture finance, which do not consider how social ties influence this process, are undersocialized and incomplete. However, we also(More)
W e used quantitative genetics techniques to compare the entrepreneurial activity of 870 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) and 857 pairs of same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twins from the United Kingdom. We ran model-fitting analyses to estimate the genetic, shared environmental and nonshared environmental effects on the propensity of people to become entrepreneurs. We(More)
We have examined at the molecular level the CDR3 and adjacent regions in peripheral blood B lymphocytes of normal individuals. A total of 111 sequences (12-28 sequences from six individuals) were obtained after cloning of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified segments into plasmids or phage. The average length of the VDJ joining was 109 nucleotides, with(More)