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PURPOSE To evaluate the validity of different approaches to determine the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in MRI experiments with multi-element surface coils, parallel imaging, and different reconstruction filters. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four different approaches of SNR calculation were compared in phantom measurements and in vivo based on: 1) the(More)
Chemical shift based methods are often used to achieve uniform water-fat separation that is insensitive to Bo inhomogeneities. Many spin-echo (SE) or fast SE (FSE) approaches acquire three echoes shifted symmetrically about the SE, creating time-dependent phase shifts caused by water-fat chemical shift. This work demonstrates that symmetrically acquired(More)
Hepatic steatosis is characterized by abnormal and excessive accumulation of lipids within hepatocytes. It is an important feature of diffuse liver disease, and the histological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Other conditions associated with steatosis include alcoholic liver disease, viral hepatitis, HIV and genetic lipodystrophies,(More)
This work describes a new approach to multipoint Dixon fat-water separation that is amenable to pulse sequences that require short echo time (TE) increments, such as steady-state free precession (SSFP) and fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging. Using an iterative linear least-squares method that decomposes water and fat images from source images acquired at short TE(More)
BACKGROUND Microvascular obstruction within an area of myocardial infarction indicates worse functional recovery and a higher risk of postinfarction complications. After prolonged coronary occlusion, contrast-enhanced MRI identifies myocardial infarction as a hyperenhanced region containing a hypoenhanced core. Because the time course of microvascular(More)
The statistical properties of background noise such as its standard deviation and mean value are frequently used to estimate the original noise level of the acquired data. This requires the knowledge of the statistical intensity distribution of the background signal, that is, the probability density of the occurrence of a certain signal intensity. The(More)
Recent advances have reduced scan time in three-dimensional fast spin echo (3D-FSE) imaging, including very long echo trains through refocusing flip angle (FA) modulation and 2D-accelerated parallel imaging. This work describes a method to modulate refocusing FAs that produces sharp point spread functions (PSFs) from very long echo trains while exercising(More)
PURPOSE To combine gradient-echo (GRE) imaging with a multipoint water-fat separation method known as "iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least squares estimation" (IDEAL) for uniform water-fat separation. Robust fat suppression is necessary for many GRE imaging applications; unfortunately, uniform fat suppression is(More)
Multiecho chemical shift-based water-fat separation methods are seeing increasing clinical use due to their ability to estimate and correct for field inhomogeneities. Previous chemical shift-based water-fat separation methods used a relatively simple signal model that assumes both water and fat have a single resonant frequency. However, it is well known(More)
A wide variety of fat suppression and water-fat separation methods are used to suppress fat signal and improve visualization of abnormalities. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques for fat suppression and fat-water imaging including 1) chemically selective fat suppression pulses "FAT-SAT"; 2) spatial-spectral pulses (water excitation); 3)(More)