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Archaeological and genetic evidence concerning the time and mode of wild horse (Equus ferus) domestication is still debated. High levels of genetic diversity in horse mtDNA have been detected when analyzing the control region; recurrent mutations, however, tend to blur the structure of the phylogenetic tree. Here, we brought the horse mtDNA phylogeny to the(More)
Mice that are homozygous for the autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia (cho) mutation die at birth with abnormalities in cartilage of limbs, ribs, mandible, and trachea. Limb bones of newborn cho/cho mice are wider at the metaphyses than normal bones and only about half the normal length. By linkage analysis, the cho gene and the gene encoding the alpha 1(More)
The current human mitochondrial (mtDNA) phylogeny does not equally represent all human populations but is biased in favour of representatives originally from north and central Europe. This especially affects the phylogeny of some uncommon West Eurasian haplogroups, including I and W, whose southern European and Near Eastern components are very poorly(More)
High-throughput genotyping data are useful for making inferences about human evolutionary history. However, the populations sampled to date are unevenly distributed, and some areas (e.g., South and Central Asia) have rarely been sampled in large-scale studies. To assess human genetic variation more evenly, we sampled 296 individuals from 13 worldwide(More)
Accurate estimation of recent shared ancestry is important for genetics, evolution, medicine, conservation biology, and forensics. Established methods estimate kinship accurately for first-degree through third-degree relatives. We demonstrate that chromosomal segments shared by two individuals due to identity by descent (IBD) provide much additional(More)
AIM To determine the human Y-chromosome haplogroup backgrounds of intermediate-sized variant alleles displayed by short tandem repeat (STR) loci DYS392, DYS449, and DYS385, and to evaluate the potential of each intermediate variant to elucidate new phylogenetic substructure within the human Y-chromosome haplogroup tree. METHODS Molecular characterization(More)
The origins of Ashkenazi Jews remain highly controversial. Like Judaism, mitochondrial DNA is passed along the maternal line. Its variation in the Ashkenazim is highly distinctive, with four major and numerous minor founders. However, due to their rarity in the general population, these founders have been difficult to trace to a source. Here we show that(More)
AIM To determine the human Y-chromosome haplogroup backgrounds of non-consensus DYS458.2 short tandem repeat alleles and evaluate their phylogenetic substructure and frequency in representative samples from the Middle East, Europe, and Pakistan. METHODS Molecular characterization of lineages was achieved using a combination of Y-chromosome haplogroup(More)
The inherited genetic defect in adenomatous polyposis has been localized to a small region on the long arm of chromosome 5. Sixteen DNA marker loci were used to construct a linkage map of the chromosome. When five kindreds segregating a gene for adenomatous polyposis coli were characterized with a number of the markers, significant linkage was found between(More)
Conus venoms contain a remarkable diversity of pharmacologically active small peptides. Their targets are ion channels and receptors in the neuromuscular system. The venom of Conus geographus contains high-affinity peptides that act on voltage-sensitive calcium channels, sodium channels, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, acetylcholine receptors, and(More)