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OBJECTIVE To determine whether S-nitrosylation of connexins (Cxs) modulates gap junction communication between endothelium and smooth muscle. METHODS AND RESULTS Heterocellular communication is essential for endothelium control of smooth muscle constriction; however, the exact mechanism governing this action remains unknown. Cxs and NO have been(More)
RATIONALE The coordination of vascular smooth muscle cell constriction plays an important role in vascular function, such as regulation of blood pressure; however, the mechanism responsible for vascular smooth muscle cell communication is not clear in the resistance vasculature. Pannexins (Panx) are purine-releasing channels permeable to the vasoconstrictor(More)
Posttranslational modification is a common cellular process that is used by cells to ensure a particular protein function. This can happen in a variety of ways, e.g., from the addition of phosphates or sugar residues to a particular amino acid, ensuring proper protein life cycle and function. In this review, we assess the evidence for ubiquitination,(More)
Models of unregulated nitric oxide (NO) diffusion do not consistently account for the biochemistry of NO synthase (NOS)-dependent signalling in many cell systems. For example, endothelial NOS controls blood pressure, blood flow and oxygen delivery through its effect on vascular smooth muscle tone, but the regulation of these processes is not adequately(More)
Inflammatory cell recruitment to local sites of tissue injury and/or infection is controlled by a plethora of signalling processes influencing cell-to-cell interactions between the vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in post-capillary venules and circulating leukocytes. Recently, ATP-sensitive P2Y purinergic receptors have emerged as downstream regulators of(More)
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes in preconfluent cultures derived from postnatal rat cerebellum have been previously shown to display two distinct morphologies, one stellate and the other irregularly epithelioid. The immunofluorescence studies described here showed that these cells also possess unique surface characteristics. In(More)
In non-neuronal cultures of cells dissociated from postnatal rat cerebellum astrocytes, identified by the presence of the marker protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), displayed two distinct morphological forms. One class was stellate in shape with radially distributed fine processes, while the other class was more varied in shape being polygonal(More)
A study was undertaken to correlate the morphology expressed by astroglial cells in post-natal cerebellar, interneuron-enriched primary cultures, and the ability of these cells to accumulate putative neurotransmitter amino acids. Astroglial cell morphology, as studied by GFAP immunofluorescence staining showed considerable changes during the culture period(More)
Endothelial cell migration is a fundamental process during angiogenesis and, therefore, a point of intervention for therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling pathologies involving blood vessel growth. We sought to determine the role of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in key features of angiogenesis in the central nervous system. We used an in(More)
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) causes a range of cancers including cervical and head and neck cancers. HPV E6 oncoprotein binds the cell polarity regulator hDlg (human homologue of Drosophila Discs Large). Previously we showed in vitro, and now in vivo, that hDlg also binds Connexin 43 (Cx43), a major component of gap junctions that mediate(More)