Spasmodic dysphonia is a focal laryngeal dystonia. Laryngeal dystonia presents as: adductor spasmodic dysphonia with the characteristic strain-strangle voice; abductor spasmodic dysphonia with hypophonia and breathy breaks in connected speech; and adductor respiratory dystonia with paradoxical vocal fold motion and intermittent stridor. Current treatment… (More)
Laryngotracheal trauma is a rare condition that accounts for less than 1% of blunt trauma. Laryngotracheal fractures are uncommon in sports, even in settings where athletes are more vulnerable, including football, basketball, and hockey. If a laryngeal injury is suspected, immediate evaluation is required to avoid a delay in the diagnosis of a potentially… (More)
An easy-to-prepare inexpensive disposable infusion swivel for small animals is described for acute and chronic experiments. The swivel is constructed from common plastic laboratory syringe components, needles, and a three-way stopcock.