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Gavage of mice, immunised with an inactivated S. typhimurium vaccine, with Andrographis paniculata extract [APE] or andrographolide [AND] resulted in an enhancement of Salmonella-specific antibody response and induction of cell-mediated response against salmonellosis. Mice were vaccinated with either one or two doses of killed S. typhimurium vaccine and fed(More)
Prior to the introduction of killed whole cell pertussis vaccine [wP] in the 1940s, whooping cough was a major cause of infant death worldwide. Widespread vaccination of children with this vaccine caused a significant reduction in mortality. However in the 1990s and now more recently, there has been a resurgence of pertussis in several countries even in(More)
The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding a genetically inactivated S1 domain of pertussis toxin was evaluated using a murine respiratory challenge model of Bordetella pertussis infection. It was found that mice immunized via the intramuscular route elicited a purely cell-mediated immune response to the DNA vaccine, with high(More)
The immunogenicity of P97 adhesin repeat region R1 (P97R1) of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogenesis-associated region of P97, was evaluated in mice as a mucosal vaccine. Mice were immunized orally with attenuated Salmonella typhimurium aroA strain CS332 harbouring a eukaryotic or prokaryotic expression vector encoding P97R1. Local and systemic(More)
The Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae ribonucleotide reductase R2 subunit (NrdF) gene fragment was cloned into eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression vectors and its immunogenicity evaluated in mice immunized orally with attenuated Salmonella typhimurium aroA CS332 harboring either of the recombinant expression plasmids. We found that NrdF is highly conserved among(More)
Intramuscular immunization of mice with DNA cocktail vaccines, comprising potential protective antigens P36, P46, NrdF, and P97or P97R1 of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, induced strong Th1-polarized immune responses against each antigen, with only P46 eliciting a serum IgG response. Subcutaneous immunization with protein cocktail vaccines, surprisingly, induced(More)
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