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PURPOSE To examine the kinematic adjustments that runners make during an exhaustive run and to look at the effects these adjustments have on shock and shock attenuation. METHODS Ten recreational runners ran to volitional exhaustion on a treadmill at a velocity equal to their average 3200-m running velocity at maximal effort (average time: 15.7 +/- 1.7(More)
To reach the level of elite, most baseball pitchers need to consistently produce high ball velocity but avoid high joint loads at the shoulder and elbow that may lead to injury. This study examined the relationship between fastball velocity and variations in throwing mechanics within 19 baseball pitchers who were analyzed via 3-D high-speed motion analysis.(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine whether electromechanical delay (EMD) was associated exclusively with the onset of tension from a resting state and whether EMD remained constant across different rates of force development. METHODS Twenty-four subjects (23.9 +/- 5.4 yr, 171.7 +/- 7.3 cm, 72.9 +/- 12.8 kg) performed isometric elbow(More)
The aims of this study were to identify differences in the centre of buoyancy (CB) and centre of mass (CM) locations of male and female collegiate swimmers, and to assess the influence that buoyancy has on freestyle kicking performance. Sixteen female collegiate swimmers (mean +/- s: age 19.1 +/- 1.2 years) had significantly more adipose tissue (20.2 +/-(More)
BACKGROUND This study investigated the hypothesis that expressions of maximal and submaximal bilateral indices would not differ between older and young participants. METHODS Twenty older (73.3 +/- 4.4 years) and 21 younger (22.4 +/- 0.9 years) participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the elbow flexor muscles, using the right arm(More)
UNLABELLED During gait, humans choose a combination of step length and step rate that minimizes V˙O2. However, little work has been reported on the existence of such optimization in swimming. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the manipulation of stroke rate on V˙O2 in submaximal, constant speed freestyle swimming. METHODS Preferred stroke(More)
To determine if the central command signal associated with isometric exercise is mass-dependent, 20 subjects (nine male, 11 female; 23 +/- 1 years) performed four 5-min bouts of supine isometric exercise with a large (quadriceps; LEG) and small (forearm; ARM) muscle mass. For each extremity, one bout entailed maintaining a constant force (CF; 20% maximal(More)
This study investigated the accuracy of the direct linear transformation (DLT) and non-linear transformation (NLT) methods of 3-D cinematography/videography. A comparison of standard DLT, extrapolated DLT, and NLT calibrations showed the standard (non-extrapolated) DLT to be the most accurate, especially when a large number of control points (40-60) were(More)
PURPOSE Nine male collegiate swimmers swam three 183-m freestyle trials at "moderate, moderately hard, and hard" paces while wearing a traditional brief-style suit and on another occasion while wearing a newly designed suit covering the torso and legs with a material designed to reduce drag (FS). METHODS Postswim blood lactate concentration, V0(2), and(More)
Thirty-six participants performed bilateral and unilateral isometric elbow flexion trials at what they perceived to be 100, 75, 50, and 25% of maximal effort. Absolute bilateral deficits ranged from--16% at 25% effort to--10% at 100% effort. The deficit included a component independent of consciousness and a component inversely related to intensity(More)