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Proteasomes, the primary mediators of ubiquitin-protein conjugate degradation, are regulated through complex and poorly understood mechanisms. Here we show that USP14, a proteasome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme, can inhibit the degradation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates both in vitro and in cells. A catalytically inactive variant of USP14 has reduced(More)
It has been hypothesized that R-type Ca currents result from the expression of the alpha(1E) gene. To test this hypothesis we examined the properties of voltage-dependent Ca channels in mice in which the alpha(1E) Ca channel subunit had been deleted. Application of omega-conotoxin GVIA, omega-agatoxin IVA, and nimodipine to cultured cerebellar granule(More)
The dilute (d), leaden (ln), and ashen (ash) mutations provide a unique model system for studying vesicle transport in mammals. All three mutations produce a lightened coat color because of defects in pigment granule transport. In addition, all three mutations are suppressed by the semidominant dilute-suppressor (dsu), providing genetic evidence that these(More)
Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that is selectively and abundantly expressed in the brain, and its activity is required for normal synaptic function. Here, we show that UCH-L1 functions in maintaining normal synaptic structure in hippocampal neurons. We found that UCH-L1 activity is rapidly upregulated by NMDA(More)
The ataxia (ax(J)) mutation is a spontaneous recessive mutation that results in reduced expression of ubiquitin-specific protease 14, Usp14. Mice homozygous for the ax(J) mutation are retarded for growth and exhibit several behavioral disorders, including a resting tremor and hindlimb paralysis. Although pathological defects appear to be limited to the(More)
Dysfunction of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's, spinocerebellar ataxia, and several motor neuron diseases. Recent research indicates that changes in synaptic transmission may play a critical role in the progression of neurological disease; however, the(More)
Recent studies of mRNA export factors have provided additional evidence for a mechanistic link between mRNA 3'-end formation and nuclear export. Here, we identify Nab2p as a nuclear poly(A)-binding protein required for both poly(A) tail length control and nuclear export of mRNA. Loss of NAB2 expression leads to hyperadenylation and nuclear accumulation of(More)
α-synuclein (α-syn) is a main component of Lewy bodies (LB) that occur in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with LB (DLB) and multi-system atrophy. α-syn mutations or amplifications are responsible for a subset of autosomal dominant familial PD cases, and overexpression causes neurodegeneration and motor(More)
Mice that are homozygous with respect to a mutation (ax(J)) in the ataxia (ax) gene develop severe tremors by 2-3 weeks of age followed by hindlimb paralysis and death by 6-10 weeks of age. Here we show that ax encodes ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (Usp14). Ubiquitin proteases are a large family of cysteine proteases that specifically cleave ubiquitin(More)