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We have developed a toolbox and graphic user interface, EEGLAB, running under the crossplatform MATLAB environment (The Mathworks, Inc.) for processing collections of single-trial and/or averaged EEG data of any number of channels. Available functions include EEG data, channel and event information importing, data visualization (scrolling, scalp map and(More)
Current analytical techniques applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data require a priori knowledge or specific assumptions about the time courses of processes contributing to the measured signals. Here we describe a new method for analyzing fMRI data based on the independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm of Bell and Sejnowski(More)
It has been long debated whether averaged electrical responses recorded from the scalp result from stimulus-evoked brain events or stimulus-induced changes in ongoing brain dynamics. In a human visual selective attention task, we show that nontarget event-related potentials were mainly generated by partial stimulus-induced phase resetting of multiple(More)
Eye movements, eye blinks, cardiac signals, muscle noise, and line noise present serious problems for electroencephalographic (EEG) interpretation and analysis when rejecting contaminated EEG segments results in an unacceptable data loss. Many methods have been proposed to remove artifacts from EEG recordings, especially those arising from eye movements and(More)
Because of the distance between the skull and brain and their diier-ent resistivities, electroencephalographic (EEG) data collected from any point on the human scalp includes activity generated within a large brain area. This spatial smearing of EEG data by volume conduction does not involve signiicant time delays, however, suggesting that the Independent(More)
OBJECTIVES Electrical potentials produced by blinks and eye movements present serious problems for electroencephalographic (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP) data interpretation and analysis, particularly for analysis of data from some clinical populations. Often, all epochs contaminated by large eye artifacts are rejected as unusable, though this may(More)
Averaged event-related potential (ERP) data recorded from the human scalp reveal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity that is reliably time-locked and phase-locked to experimental events. We report here the application of a method based on information theory that decomposes one or more ERPs recorded at multiple scalp sensors into a sum of components with(More)
A method is given for determining the time course and spatial extent of consistently and transiently task-related activations from other physiological and artifactual components that contribute to functional MRI (fMRI) recordings. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to analyze two fMRI data sets from a subject performing 6-min trials composed of(More)
This article provides a new, more comprehensive view of event-related brain dynamics founded on an information-based approach to modeling electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics. Most EEG research focuses either on peaks 'evoked' in average event-related potentials (ERPs) or on changes 'induced' in the EEG power spectrum by experimental events. Although(More)
Human event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 10 subjects presented with visual target and nontarget stimuli at five screen locations and responding to targets presented at one of the locations. The late positive response complexes of 25-75 ERP average waveforms from the two task conditions were simultaneously analyzed with Independent Component(More)